notes physics electricity A*

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notes physics electricity A*

© All Rights Reserved

- Army Principles of Auto Electricity
- EASA Electrical Fundamentals 2
- Chap23
- Six Sigma Project (CRI(GW))
- Ohm’s Law
- CCNA1_lab_3_1_5_en
- Physics Test
- 3-Current-Electricity.pdf
- What is Static Electricity
- Types of Circuits
- GndTestArticle
- su4c9 by adel khamis
- Gr 10 Ele - Copy
- PHYSICS2L
- Diagnostic Test Elctrncubd
- Electro
- 30 Pdfsam Tneb Hand Testing Book
- Issue No 24 - Current Carrying Capacity
- Basic DC Theory
- Introduction and Recommendations

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LEARNING

OBJECTIVES

Core

State that the e.m.f. of an electrical source

of energy is measured in volts

across a circuit component is measured in

volts

both analogue and digital

understand qualitatively how changes in

p.d. or resistance affect current

resistance using a voltmeter and an

ammeter

of a wire to its length and to its diameter

energy from the battery or power source

to the circuit components then into the

surroundings

Supplement

Show understanding that e.m.f. is

defined in terms of energy supplied by a

source in driving charge round a

complete circuit

Recall that 1 V is equivalent to 1 J / C

Sketch and explain the current-voltage

characteristic of an ohmic resistor and a

filament lamp

Recall and use quantitatively the

proportionality between resistance and

length, and the inverse proportionality

between resistance and cross-sectional

area of a wire

Recall and use the equations P = IV and

E = IVt

Recap

emf

electrons around a circuit.

The higher the current, the

faster the electrons are

travelling. The unit of current

is the amp, and in a circuit an

ammeter is used to measure

current.

Recap

emf

VOLTAGE is the amount of

energy supplied per unit

charge in driving through

the circuit.

PD=V= E/Q

.

electrons around a circuit.

The higher the current, the

faster the electrons are

travelling. The unit of current

is the amp, and in a circuit an

ammeter is used to measure

current.

Recap

emf

VOLTAGE is the amount of

energy supplied per unit

charge in driving through

the circuit.

PD=V= E/Q

.

Voltage is also known as

POTENTIAL DIFERENCE

(PD)

electrons around a circuit.

The higher the current, the

faster the electrons are

travelling. The unit of current

is the amp, and in a circuit an

ammeter is used to measure

current.

Recap

emf

VOLTAGE is the amount of

energy supplied per unit

charge in driving through

the circuit.

PD=V= E/Q

Voltage is also known as

POTENTIAL DIFERENCE

(PD)

electrons around a circuit.

The higher the current, the

faster the electrons are

travelling. The unit of current

is the amp, and in a circuit an

ammeter is used to measure

current.

Unit of voltage or PD is

the volt.

Supplement

1 volt = 1 joule of

potential energy is given

to each coulomb of

charge

(1V = 1 J/C)

emf

energy supplied per unit

charge in driving through

the circuit.

PD=V= E/Q

Voltage is also known as

POTENTIAL DIFERENCE

(PD)

The cell produces its highest

potential difference when not

connected in a circuit. This

maximum PD is known as the

electromotive force (EMF) of

the cell.

electrons potential

energy. This energy is

then passed on to the

components in the cell

emf

energy supplied per unit

charge in driving through

the circuit.

PD=V= E/Q

Voltage is also known as

POTENTIAL DIFERENCE

(PD)

The cell produces its highest

potential difference when not

connected in a circuit. This

maximum PD is known as the

electromotive force (EMF) of

the cell.

electrons potential

energy. This energy is

then passed on to the

components in the cell

circuit the potential difference

drops because of energy wastage

inside the cell.

Just a reminder

A single

cell

A battery, made up of

several cells.

A battery is a series of joined

cells, although it is commonly

used for a single cell as well.

electrons potential

energy. This energy is

then passed on to the

components in the cell

energy supplied per unit

charge in driving through

the circuit.

PD=V= E/Q

Voltage is also known as

POTENTIAL DIFERENCE

(PD)

The cell produces its highest

potential difference when not

connected in a circuit. This

maximum PD is known as the

electromotive force (EMF) of

the cell.

As soon as the cell is connected in a

circuit the potential difference

drops because of energy wastage

inside the cell.

Voltage is

measured

using a

VOLTMET

ER

a component in a circuit the

voltmeter must be placed in

parallel with it.

Voltage is

measured

using a

VOLTMET

ER

a component in a circuit the

voltmeter must be placed in

parallel with it.

Voltage is

measured

using a

VOLTMET

ER

Series and parallel circuits

voltage (PD) of the supply is

shared between the various

components, so the voltages

around a series circuit always

add up to equal the source

voltage.

Voltage is

measured

using a

VOLTMET

ER

Series and parallel circuits

voltage (PD) of the supply is

shared between the various

components, so the voltages

around a series circuit always

add up to equal the source

voltage.

Voltage is

measured

using a

VOLTMET

ER

In a parallel

circuit all

components get

the full source

voltage, so the

voltage is the

same across all

components

around an electrical circuit

there is resistance to the

electrons.

around an electrical circuit

there is resistance to the

electrons.

Copper connecting

wire is a good

conductor, it

offers little

resistance to the

electrons, and a

current passes

through it easily.

Nichrome is not

such a good

conductor, it has

a bigger

resistance to the

electrons, and

less current will

flow.

around an electrical circuit

there is resistance to the

electrons.

equation:

Copper connecting

wire is a good

conductor, it

offers little

resistance to the

electrons, and a

current passes

through it easily.

Nichrome is not

such a good

conductor, it has

a bigger

resistance to the

electrons, and

less current will

flow.

resistance = voltage

current

R = V

I

(Greek letter omega)

around an electrical circuit

there is resistance to the

electrons.

equation:

Copper connecting

wire is a good

conductor, it

offers little

resistance to the

electrons, and a

current passes

through it easily.

Nichrome is not

such a good

conductor, it has

a bigger

resistance to the

electrons, and

less current will

flow.

resistance = voltage

current

R = V

I

(Greek letter omega)

eg. If a PD of 8V is needed to make a

current of 4A flow through a wire.

Resistance = 8 / 4 = 2

linking V, I and R

V = I x R

V

I

I = V / R

R = V / I

Factors

affecting

resistance.

Factors

affecting

resistance.

Temperatu

re

Lengt

h of

wire

Factors

affectin

g

resistan

ce

Materi

al

Cross

section

al area

Lengt

h of

wire

Factors

affecting

resistance.

Temperatur

e

Factors

affectin

g

resistan

ce

Materi

al

increases with temperature. For

semi-conductors, it decreases

with temperature.

Cross

section

al area

Lengt

h of

wire

Factors

affecting

resistance.

Temperatur

e

Factors

affectin

g

resistan

ce

Materi

al

increases with temperature. For

semi-conductors, it decreases

with temperature.

When a current flows through a wire,

resistance causes a heating effect.

This principle is used in heating

elements and in filament light bulbs.

Cross

section

al area

Factors

affecting

resistance.

increases with temperature. For

semi-conductors, it decreases

with temperature.

When a current flows through a wire,

resistance causes a heating effect.

This principle is used in heating

elements and in filament light bulbs.

atoms as they pass

through conductors,

losing energy. The atoms

vibrate more, causing a

heating effect

Temperatur

e

Factors

affecting

resistance.

Lengt

h of

wire

Factors

affectin

g

resistan

ce

Cross

section

al area

Materi

al

A

B

Wires A and B have the same crosssectional area and are at the same

temperature. Wire B is twice as

long as wire A, and has twice the

resistance.

Factors

affecting

resistance.

Wires A and B have the same crosssectional area and are at the same

temperature. Wire B is twice as

long as wire A, and has twice the

resistance.

A

B

Resistance

length

Temperatur

e

Factors

affecting

resistance.

Cross

section

al area

Factors

affectin

g

resistan

ce

Lengt

h of

wire

Materi

al

and are at the same temperature.

Wire B is twice the cross-sectional

area of A, and has half the

resistance.

Factors

affecting

resistance.

and are at the same temperature.

Wire B is twice the cross-sectional

area of A, and has half the

resistance.

Resistance

1

area

(area = cross-sectional

area)

Temperatur

e

Factors

affecting

resistance.

Materi

al

Factors

affectin

g

resistan

ce

Cross

section

al area

resistance for a given length. For

example a 10cm length of nichrome

has a much higher resistance than

copper of the same length and

cross-sectional area. Nichrome is

said to have a higher resistivity.

Lengt

h of

wire

Temperatur

e

Factors

affecting

resistance.

Materi

al

Factors

affectin

g

resistan

ce

Lengt

h of

wire

Cross

section

al area

resistance for a given length. For

example a 10cm length of nichrome

has a much higher resistance than

copper of the same length and

cross-sectional area. Nichrome is

said to have a higher resistivity.

Constanta

n

49 x 10-8

Manganin

44 x 10-8

Nichrome

100 x 10-8

Tungsten

55 x 10-8

The Greek letter rho () is the

resistivity constant for any given

material)

Factors

affecting

resistance.

Factors

affecting

resistance.

Resistance

length

area

Factors

affecting

resistance.

Resistance

length

area

R = x l

A

Factors

affecting

resistance.

Resistance

length

area

R = x l

A

= R x A

l

Factors

affecting

resistance.

Comparing different wires, A and B, made

from the same material (so is the same

for each wire) at the same temperature.

R = x l

A

= R x A

l

Factors

affecting

resistance.

Comparing different wires, A and B, made

from the same material (so is the same

for each wire) at the same temperature.

LengthA

LengthB

R = x l

A

= R x A

l

Resistor

1 megohm (M) = 1 000 000

Resistor

1 megohm (M) = 1 000 000

Variable

resistor

example in light dimmer

switches

Resistor

1 megohm (M) = 1 000 000

Variable

resistor

example in light dimmer

switches

Thermistor

much lower resistance when

hot. Eg. Digital thermometer

Resistor

1 megohm (M) = 1 000 000

Variable

resistor

example in light dimmer

switches

Thermistor

much lower resistance when

hot. Eg. Digital thermometer

Light dependent

resistor (LDR)

a low resistance in the light. Eg.

Controlling light switches

Resistor

1 megohm (M) = 1 000 000

Variable

resistor

example in light dimmer

switches

Thermistor

much lower resistance when

hot. Eg. Digital thermometer

Light dependent

resistor (LDR)

a low resistance in the light. Eg.

Controlling light switches

Diode

one direction, but low in the

other. Controls flow of current

Ohms Law

A 19th Century scientist

who first investigated

the electrical

properties of wires, and

the relationship

between V, I and R

I (the symbol for current) = intensite du courant

Ohms Law

How current

varies with voltage

(PD) for a metal

conductor.

Circuit diagram:

battery

Variabl

e

resistor

Ammete

r

Voltmet

er

Nichrom

e wire

Water bath

to keep

nichrome

at

constant

temperatu

Ohms Law

How current

varies with voltage

(PD) for a metal

conductor.

Circuit diagram:

battery

Variabl

e

resistor

Ammete

r

Voltmet

er

V

resistor

R = V/I

2.0V

0.4A

5.0

4.0

0.8

5.0

6.0

1.2

5.0

8.0

1.6

5.0

10.0

2.0

5.0

Ohms Law

How current

varies with voltage

(PD) for a metal

conductor.

Circuit diagram:

battery

Variabl

e

resistor

Ammete

r

Voltmet

er

R = V/I

2.0V

0.4A

5.0

4.0

0.8

5.0

6.0

1.2

5.0

8.0

1.6

5.0

10.0

2.0

5.0

2.

0

Nichrom

e wire

Water bath

to keep

nichrome

at

constant

temperatu

Curre

nt (A)

0

Voltage (V)

10.

0

Ohms Law

1. A graph of current

against voltage is a

straight line through

the origin.

2. If the voltage doubles

then the current

doubles, etc

3. In this experiment, V/I

always has the same

value.

Ohms Law

Current

Voltage

1. A graph of current

against voltage is a

straight line through

the origin.

2. If the voltage doubles

then the current

doubles, etc

3. In this experiment, V/I

always has the same

value.

Provided temperature is

constant

Ohms Law

Current

Voltage

1. A graph of current

against voltage is a

straight line through

the origin.

2. If the voltage doubles

then the current

doubles, etc

3. In this experiment, V/I

always has the same

value.

So what happens

if temperature

changes?

For a tungsten

filament lamp,

as the current

increases, the

temperature

rises and the

resistance

increases.

Current is not

directly

proportional to

the voltage.

So what happens

if temperature

changes?

For a tungsten

filament lamp,

as the current

increases, the

temperature

rises and the

resistance

increases.

Current is not

directly

proportional to

the voltage.

Current is not

proportional to the

voltage. If the voltage

is reversed, the

resistance increases

greatly, so effectively

making sure that

current only flows in

one direction in the

circuit.

And finally

circuits transfer energy

from the battery or power

source to the circuit

components then into the

surroundings

And finally

Chemical energy is

transformed into potential

energy in the electrons, and

in the bulb this is changed

into thermal (heat) energy.

circuits transfer energy

from the battery or power

source to the circuit

components then into the

surroundings

And finally

Chemical energy is

transformed into potential

energy in the electrons, and

in the bulb this is changed

into thermal (heat) energy.

The rate at which energy is

transformed is known as

POWER. The unit of power

is the watt (W).

circuits transfer energy

from the battery or power

source to the circuit

components then into the

surroundings

And finally

Chemical energy is

transformed into potential

energy in the electrons, and

in the bulb this is changed

into thermal (heat) energy.

The rate at which energy is

transformed is known as

POWER. The unit of power

is the watt (W).

circuits transfer energy

from the battery or power

source to the circuit

components then into the

surroundings

P = I x V

I V

V = P/I

I = P/V

circuits transfer energy

from the battery or power

source to the circuit

components then into the

surroundings

And finally

2200W

(2.2kW)

450W

11W

80W

And finally

the equations P

= IV and E = IVt

Supplement

And finally

Supplement

Power = energy transformed

time taken

the equations P

= IV and E = IVt

And finally

Supplement

Power = energy transformed

time taken

the equations P

= IV and E = IVt

P = E

t

And finally

Supplement

Power = energy transformed

time taken

the equations P

= IV and E = IVt

P = E

t

E =P x t

And finally

Supplement

Power = energy transformed

time taken

the equations P

= IV and E = IVt

E =IxV x t

P = E

t

E =P x t

And finally

Supplement

Power = energy transformed

time taken

the equations P

= IV and E = IVt

E =IxV x t

Joules per second

P = E

t

E =P x t

LEARNING

OBJECTIVES

Core

State that the e.m.f. of an electrical source

of energy is measured in volts

across a circuit component is measured in

volts

both analogue and digital

understand qualitatively how changes in

p.d. or resistance affect current

resistance using a voltmeter and an

ammeter

of a wire to its length and to its diameter

energy from the battery or power source

to the circuit components then into the

surroundings

Supplement

Show understanding that e.m.f. is

defined in terms of energy supplied by a

source in driving charge round a

complete circuit

Recall that 1 V is equivalent to 1 J / C

Sketch and explain the current-voltage

characteristic of an ohmic resistor and a

filament lamp

Recall and use quantitatively the

proportionality between resistance and

length, and the inverse proportionality

between resistance and cross-sectional

area of a wire

Recall and use the equations P = IV and

E = IVt

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