Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 75

Ethernet 802.

3 LANs
Chapter 5

Panko and Panko


Business Data Networks and Security
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,
Inc.

Ethernet Begins
Introduction
Physical Layer Standards
Data Link Layer Standards
Advanced Switch Operation
Ethernet Security
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,
Inc.

5-2

Bob Metcalfe

Working on his PhD at Harvard

His dissertation was turned down, but the Xerox


Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) still hired him

First visited the University of Hawaiis ALOHAnet


packet radio project

Developed a way to make it more efficient

Applied it to a cabled network, called it Ethernet


as a joke

Eventually commercialized it

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-3

Ethernet Begins

Introduction
Physical Layer Standards
Data Link Layer Standards
Advanced Switch Operation
Ethernet Security
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,
Inc.

5-4

Ethernet

Ethernet was created for local area


networks (LANs), which are networks that
operate on a customer premises

Ethernet is a family of computer networking


technologies commonly used in local area
networks (LANs) and metropolitan area
networks (MANs).

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-5

IEEE 802 Standards Committee

IEEE Standards Association vs ISO/ITU-T


Nearly all LAN standards come from IEEE Standards Association

802 LAN/MAN Standards Committee


802.1 Working Group
Standards used by multiple working groups
Security Standards

802.3 Working Group


Ethernet standards

802.11 Working Group


Wi-Fi wireless LAN standards
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,
Inc.

5-6

Ethernet (802.3) Layer 1&2


Standards
L3: Internet Layer

IP

L2: Data
Link
Layer

LLC
Layer

802.2

MAC
Layer

802.3 MAC Layer Standard

802.11 MAC Layer


Standard

100BASETX

802.11n

L1: Physical Layer

1000BAS
E-T

1000BAS
E-SX

802.11ac

LLC: Logical link control


MAC: Media access control

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-7

5.1 Simple Switched Ethernet Network

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-8

5.1 Simple Switched Ethernet Network

Core Switches Connect Switches


to Other Switches

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-9

5.1 Simple Switched Ethernet Network

Core Ethernet Switch


Usually 48 cm (19
inches) wide and 18
cm (7 inches) to about
a meter tall.
High processing
speeds

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-10

5.1 Simple Switched Ethernet Network


Trunk Links

Switches Often Connect to Other Switches


Through Optical Fiber
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,
Inc.

5-11

5.2 Ethernet Workgroup Switch with 48 ports

Workgroup Switches Connect


Hosts to the Network

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-12

5.2 Ethernet Workgroup Switch with 48


ports

Workgroup Ethernet Switch


Usually 48 cm (19 inches) wide and 9 cm (3.5
inches) tall.
Can operate much more slowly than core
switches and still give adequate service.

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-13

5.2 Ethernet Workgroup Switch with 48


ports

Hosts Normally Connect to Workgroup


Switches Through UTP Copper Wiring

Access
Links

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-14

Ethernet Begins
Introduction

Physical Layer Standards


Data Link Layer Standards
Advanced Switch Operation
Ethernet Security
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,
Inc.

5-15

5.3 UTP versus Optical Fiber


Characteristic

Unshielded
Twisted Pair

Optical Fiber

Medium

Copper wire

Glass

Signal

Electrical

Light

Maximum
Usually 100 m
Distance in LANs

For LANs, usually


200 to 500 m

Speed

Similar

Similar

Cost

Lower

Higher

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-16

5.4 Binary Signaling

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-17

5.5 Digital Signaling

10

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-18

5.6 To send more bits per second

How to do it?
Two possible solutions:
To use more states, or to use briefer clock cycles.
The latter is much easier in practice.
The limiting factor on transmission speed today is the
ability of sending and receiving devices to work
properly over ever shorter clock cycle times.

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-19

5.7 Error Resistance in Binary and Digital Signaling

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-20

5.7 Error Resistance in Binary and Digital Signaling

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-21

5.8 Four-Pair Unshielded Twisted Pair Copper Wiring

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-22

5.9 RJ-45 (Ethernet) Connector and


Jack
RJ-45 Jack

RJ-45 Connector

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-23

5.10 Serial versus Parallel


Transmission

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-24

UTP Cables

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-25

5.11 UTP Quality Category, Transmission


Speed, and Maximum Distance
Ethernet
Signaling
Standard

Transmissio
n Speed

UTP Quality
Category

Maximum
Cord Length

100BASE-TX

100 Mbps

Category 5e,
6, or higher

100 meters

1000BASE-T

1 Gbps

Category 5e,
6, or higher

100 meters

10GBASE-T

10 Gbps

Category 6

55 meters

10GBASE-T

10 Gbps

Category 6A

100 meters

Category is a measure of UTP QUALITY


Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,
Inc.

5-26

5.12 Terminal Crosstalk Interference

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-27

5.12 Terminal Crosstalk


Interference

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-28

5.12 Terminal Crosstalk Interference

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-29

5.12 Terminal Crosstalk


Interference

To add a connector, it is necessary to


straighten out the ends of the wires to slide
them into the RJ-45 connector.

Installation Rule: do not untwist the wires


more than 1.25 cm (0.5 inch).

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-30

5.13 Optical Fiber Transmission

Core: a thin strand of glass (mostly used


50m)

Cladding: a thin class cylinder (125m)

Modes

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-31

5.13 Optical Fiber Transmission

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-32

5.13 Optical Fiber Transmission

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-33

5.14 Optical Fiber Cord

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-34

Optical Fiber: Single-mode vs


Multimode

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-35

5.15 Light Amplitude and Wavelength

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-36

5.16 Optical Fiber Quality Designations and


Transmission Distance
ISO 11801
Standard

OM3
OM4

Minimum
Maximum
Distance at
1Gbps,
850nm light
(1000BASESX)
550 m
1,000 m

Minimum
Maximum
Distance at
10Gbp,
850nm light
(10GBASESR)
300 m
440 m

Minimum
Maximum
Distance at
100Gbps,
850nm light
100 m
150 m

OM stands for Optical Multimode; a standard for multimode


fiber.

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-37

5.17 Link Aggregation (Bonding)

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-38

Ethernet Physical Layer Standards


& Network design

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-39

5.18 Ethernet Physical Link Maximums and


Unlimited Data Link Distances

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-40

5.18 Ethernet Physical Link Maximums and


Unlimited Data Link Distances

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-41

5.18 Ethernet Physical Link Maximums and


Unlimited Data Link Distances

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-42

Ethernet Begins
Introduction
Physical Layer Standards

Data Link Layer Standards


Advanced Switch Operation
Ethernet Security
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,
Inc.

5-43

5.19 Ethernet 802.3 Frame

e.g. A1-36-CD-7B-DF-01 hex

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-44

5.20 Hexadecimal Notation

What
What
What
What

is
is
is
is

0101
0000
1001
1111

in
in
in
in

hex?
hex?
hex?
hex?

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-45

5.20 Hexadecimal Notation

Converting a 48-bit MAC address to hex


Write down the 48-bit address in 12 four-bit
nibbles.
Represent each nibble as a hex symbol.
Pair the hex symbols and put a dash between the
6 pairs.
Try these four nibbles: 0000111101011010

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-46

Question

Convert the EUI-48


address to binary:
A1-B2-CC-44-5D-3C

Convert 8F to hex

Convert 10010101
to hex

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-47

5.19 Ethernet 802.3 Frame

Three bits in the Tag


Control Information field
are for priority level.
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,
Inc.

5-48

5.19 Ethernet 802.3 Frame

Length Field contains


a binary number.
The maximum length
of the data field is
1,522 octets.

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-49

5.19 Ethernet 802.3 Frame

The purpose of LLC


Subheader is to describe the
type of packet contained in
the data field.
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,
Inc.

5-50

5.19 Ethernet 802.3 Frame

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-51

5.21 Multi-Switch Ethernet Operation

A packet from A1 to
E5 must pass through
Switches 1, 2, and 3.

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-52

5.21 Multi-Switch Ethernet Operation


Switch 1
sees that it
should send
the frame to
E5 out Port
5.

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-53

5.21 Multi-Switch Ethernet Operation


Switch 2
sees that it
should send
the frame to
E5 out Port
7.

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-54

5.21 Multi-Switch Ethernet Operation

Switch 3 sees that it


should send the frame to
E5 out Port 6.
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,
Inc.

5-55

Ethernet Begins
Introduction
Physical Layer Standards
Data Link Layer Standards

Advanced Switch Operation


Ethernet Security
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,
Inc.

5-56

Hierarchical Switch Organization

Ethernet standards requires a hierarchical


topology (physical organization of switches
and transmission links).

Only one possible path for any two hosts.

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-57

Ethernet Switching vs IP Routing

Chapter 8

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-58

5.22 Single Point of Failure

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-59

5.23 Backup Link and the Rapid Spanning


Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1w)

Loops are
A strict

not allowed in Ethernet.


hierarchy is required.

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-60

5.23 Backup Link and the Rapid Spanning


Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1w)

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-61

5.24 Advanced Ethernet Capabilities

Priority
Ethernet switches can provide up to eight priority
levels

Manageability
Manageable switches can be managed by SNMP
Although manageable switches cost much more than
non-manageable switches, this is more than made up
for by lower management costs
Software-defined networking (SDN) may bring a
revolution in switch management

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-62

5.24 Advanced Ethernet Capabilities

Power over Ethernet (POE)


Switches can supply power to devices via UTP.
(Wired telephone systems and USB ports already
do this.)
Less expensive than
supplying power
separately.

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-63

5.24 Advanced Ethernet Capabilities

Power Over Ethernet (POE) Plus


USB ports provide both data transmission and power to
hosts
Switches implementing POE Plus can provide up to 25
watts of power over UTP to hosts
This is sufficient for voice over IP phones, surveillance
cameras, and most access points
This saves money because there is no need to install
power lines to these devices
Not sufficient for desktop or laptop PCs

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-64

Ethernet Begins
Introduction
Physical Layer Standards
Data Link Layer Standards
Advanced Switch Operation

Ethernet Security
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,
Inc.

5-65

5.25 802.1X Port-Based Access Control


on an Ethernet Switch

The Problem
Anyone can enter the building and plug their
computer into a switch or into a wall RJ-45 port,
which connects to a switch.
This usually gives the attacker access to the
network without going through a firewall.

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-66

5.25 802.1X Port-Based Access Control


on an Ethernet Switch

Solution: access control at switch ports.


802.1X Port Based Access Control can do this.
Created by the 802.1 WG, not the 802.3 WG.
802.1 WG creates general standards, such as
security standards.

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-67

5.25 802.1X Port-Based Access Control


on an Ethernet Switch

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-68

5.25 802.1X Port-Based Access Control


on an Ethernet Switch

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-69

5.25 802.1X Port-Based Access Control


on an Ethernet Switch

Advantages of a Central Authentication


Server
Consistency: Attacker cannot find a misconfigured
switch.
Rapid changes: When someone leaves, is hired, or
needs credential changes.
Switch cost: Authentication server does heavy
work.
Reduced management cost: Only one
authentication database to maintain.

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-70

5.26 Man in the Middle Attack in an Ethernet LAN


Using ARP Poisoning

ARP Cache tells a


host where to send a
frame to reach a
particular IP address

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-71

5.26 Man in the Middle Attack in an Ethernet LAN


Using ARP Poisoning

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-72

5.26 Man in the Middle Attack in an Ethernet LAN


Using ARP Poisoning

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-73

5.26 Man in the Middle Attack in an Ethernet LAN


Using ARP Poisoning

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-74

5.26 Man in the Middle Attack in an


Ethernet LAN Using ARP Poisoning

Many Ethernet networks are wide open to


ARP poisoning attacks.

The 802.1 Working Group has developed a


general solution, the 802.1AE standard,
which requires hosts and routers to
authenticate the source of ARP messages
and other messages before the receiver will
accept them.

But the standard is not widely used.

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,


Inc.

5-75