Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 30

Human Resource

Management
CHAPTER THREE

Fundamentals of Management
Planning :

The planning process:

1.

Set an objective.

2.

Make forecasts.

3.

Determine what your alternatives are for getting from where you
are now to where you want to be.

4.

Evaluate you alternatives.

5.

Implement and evaluate your plan.

Business Plan

Provides a comprehensive view of the firms situation today and


of its company wide and departmental goals and plans for the
next 3 to 5 years.

Managers most often use the term business plan in relation to


smaller businesses.

It is the plan that the investors want to see before offering money
to the firm.

Business plan table of content:

How managers set objectives:

Setting SMART goals:

Experienced managers have a simple and effective way to check


whether their goals are good or not, they use the term SMART.

They say good goals are specific ( make clear what to achieve) ,
measurable attainable; relevant ( in terms what you are setting
the goal for), and timely they have deadlines.

Motivational goals

Assign specific goals : Employees who have specific goals usually


perform better than those who do not. Setting specific goals with
subordinates ( rather than setting no goals or telling them to do
their best) is probably the simplest effective way to motivate
subordinates.

Assign measurable goals: Always try to express the goal in terms


of numbers and include target dates and deadlines.

Assign Challenging goals: Goals should be challenging, but not so


difficult that they appear impossible or unrealistic.

Encourage participation.

Management by objectives: MBO


MBO : usually refers to a formal organization wide program in which
managers at each organizational levels meet with subordinates to
hammer out goals that make sense in terms of each department
assigned goals.

MBO typically consists of 5 steps:


1.

Set organizational goals: Top management sets strategic goals


for the company.

2.

Set department goals: department head and their superiors


jointly set supporting goals for their departments.

3.

Discuss department goals: department head present


department goals and ask all subordinates to develop their own
individual goals.

4. Set individual goals : Goals are set for each subordinate, and a
timetable is assigned for accomplishing those goals.
5. Give feedback : Supervisor and subordinate meet periodically to
review the subordinates performance and to monitor and analyze
progress toward his goals.

Types of strategies:
Corporate Strategy
Standard corporate strategy:
1.

Concentration strategy: the company offers one product usually


in one market.

2.

A diversification corporate strategy implies that the firm will


expand by adding new product lines.

3.

A vertical integration strategy means the firm expands


producing its own raw materials or selling its product direct.

4.Consolidation: reducing the companys size.


5. Geographic expansion : taking the business abroad.

Competitive strategy

Identifies how to build and strengthen the business long term


competitive position in the marketplace.

Competitive advantage: Any factors that allow an organization to


differentiate its products or service from those of its competitors
to increase the market share.

Managers use competitive


strategy to achieve competitive
advantage
Cost leadership : means becoming the low cost leader in an

industry.

Differentiation : the firm seeks to be unique in its industry along


its dimensions that are widely valued by buyers.

Example: Volvo Stresses the safety of its cars, Mc Donalds


stresses fast delivery.

Functional Strategy

Functional Strategy identifies the broad activities that each


department will pursue in order to help the business to
accomplish its competitive goals.

Strategic Fit

Strategic planning Micheal porter calls the idea that each


departments strategy needs to fit the parent businesss
competitive aims Strategic fit.

The top managers role in


strategic planning

The strategic planning is top managements responsibility. Few


top managers would delegate the job of deciding how the
company should match its internal strength and weaknesses with
its external opportunities and threats to maintain a competitive
advantage.

SWOT Analysis

Diversity

Diversity means being diverse or varied, and at work means


having a workforce comprised of two or more groups of
employees of variable personal characteristics such as gender ,
race, cultural , national origin and age.

Definition of diversity
management

DM is a planned and systematic managerial process aimed an


creating an organizational environment where all employees
contribute to organizational effectiveness.

DM is enhancing social justice by creating an organizational


environment in which no one is privileged or disadvantaged due
to characteristics such as race or gender

Types of diversity management

A) Cultural diversity : is defined as the presence of a number of


nationalities among the employees.

B) Linguistic diversity : is perceived as numerous speakers from


diverse national languages are present in the same workgroup.

C) Age diversity : means that there is a wide representation of


different age groups in the organization.

Drawbacks of diversity
management

1) Increased cost of training : comes from the seminars given by


the company to promote diversity in workplace. Employees are
being taught in this training how to accept the personalities and
the ideas and thoughts of others.

2)Conflicts: are largely due to ignorance when two or more


individuals or groups dont see the situation from the same
perspective.

3) Discrimination : when workers are being discriminated against


( because of their race, culture,.), this will affect their ability to
perform and will decrease the performance of the organization as
a whole.

The role of H.R in promoting


diversity management

Effective DM enables organizations to capitalize on workforce


diversity and minimize the negative effect of such diversity.

HRM plays a vital role in diversity management. It ensures


equality and values diversity through making use of it.

Generally, effective DM requires close integration with H.R


practices, focusing on employees, their individual differences and
creating a workforce that has the skills needed to turn diversity
into an advantage, leading to positive performance outcomes.

H.R diversity management


practice:

A) Recruitment and selection : Effective recruitment and selection


should focus on:

Ensuring equal employment opportunity for applicants from


diverse backgrounds.

Screening job candidates attitudes toward diversity to ensure


that the new employee fits in with the culture diversity in the
organization.

Recruiting the best people for the job regardless of their age,
race and gender.

2) Training and development: Diversity training to increase


diversity awareness, meet the needs of diverse employees,
improve employee morale, and help retain qualified employees.

Training programs to help eliminate group differences in career


outcomes and generate respect for individual differences in
attitudes, values and behaviors.

3) Performance Appraisal: Be objective not subjective, fair to all


employees and offer no special treatment.

4) Reward and compensation : ensure pay equity and rewarding


contribution of diverse employees equitably to avoid wage gaps
between demographic groups and discrimination in
employement compensation.