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THE IMP

LEMENTA
TION
OF QMS I
N
CONSTRU
CTIOU
NnIdNeD
rU
th
uidance of
Se
TRgY

Prof. K. V. JAY
AKUMAR
Dept. of Civil
Engineering

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R.RA
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CONTENTS:
Introduction
Problem
Aim

Statement

& Objectives

Literature
Research

Review
Methodology

Method

of Analysis

Results

& Discussions

Conclusions
References
2

Introduction
Construction Industry contribution to Country Economic Growth
India (

) position in Asian Market

Construction industry current status compared to other sectors


Poor workmanship
Non Standardization
Environmental Impacts

Obstacles faced by construction industry


Extensive delays
Exceeding cost
Workmanship quality
(Because of nature of operation is complicated)

QMS Implementation in the past decade


3

Problem Statement:
Indian

Construction industry
Vs
International Construction industry

Below

Clients Expectation

Problems

& issues while implementation

Aim & Objectives study :


Aim: To study the potential applying of Quality Management System (QMS)
Objectives:

To investigate the current status of the QMS being implemented by Indian


construction companies.

To find out problems and issues on the implementation of QMS in construction


projects.

To determine the factors impelling effective and continuous improvement of


Indian construction industries QMSs.

LITERATURE REVIEW:
Introduction Quality Management System:
Significance of construction three fold in construction
Increase in demand towards high quality
Quality implementation through out the life cycle
Eliminating Lean Construction

Quality Management History & Gurus:


Start to finish by the same team to meet quality criteria
Taylor established Quality Departments
Ensure quality production
Rectifying errors
Ford emphasized standardization of design & components
As a result of world war, statistical control was introduced
Joseph Juran, W Edwards Deming, Philip Crosby

Basic concept Quality & Quality Dimensions and


Parameters:
Definitions by various people
Five perspective of quality
According to DCQI
For an owner
For a designer
For a contractor
From the operational and management point view
Doing the job right first time can save 24% of total cost of construction
8

Total Quality Management:


TQM is a way of managing for the future
than its application assuring product or
service quality
To ensure complete customer satisfaction at
every stage
The TQM core is customer supplier interfaces
internally and externally right at every
interfaces there are processes and systems

The Relationship of TQM core

Problems and Issues on implementation of QMS:


QMS as Marketing Tool
Knowledge and experience
Motivation
Training
Quality Audit

10

Factors Impelling Effective and Continuous


Improvement:
Employees Empowerment
Continuous Training
Process Management
Work Environment and Culture

11

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:
Selection of Research Methods:
A Questionnaire survey method was adopted
Quantitative data
A survey regarded as appropriate to answer the what? type of
research questions.

12

Research Methods
Phase
1

Research Objectives
To identify quality management systems (QMSs) issues in
construction projects and organisations in both international
and Indian contexts, identify gaps and problems of issues
particularly in the Indonesian case
To develop a draft research instrument (questionnaire)

Expected Outcomes

Data Collection

Data Analysis

Literature review

Theoretical framework

Literature review

Draft questionnaire and


variables
Final questionnaire
instrument

To confirm the selected variables for the study, and shape the
final questionnaire with necessary modification

Preliminary
Studies

Qualitative

To examine the effectiveness of the QMSs being operated in


Indian construction companies, including the identification of
current problems within the systems, and examine the
companies performance while implementing QMSs

Questionnaire

Quantitative

Level of QMSs
implementation, QMS
improvement elements
variables and statistical
relationships between
these variables

To design and develop a draft of QMS


improvement implementation framework, to enable Indian
construction companies to effectively implement QMS

A framework to improve
QMS implementation

To refine and finalize the culture-based QMS improvement


implementation framework

Valuable implications for


construction industry and
practitioners in India

Integration of Research Methods and Research Objectives with Expected Outcomes13

Questionnaire survey:
Purpose

To evaluate the respondents perception towards the


concept of quality management

Limitation
Scale

Respondents willingness and cooperation

As most of the questions sought opinions or a subjective


measurement, the format is based on an unbalanced
itemized rating scale

SAMPLE QUESTIONS:
1) The use of consultant and their portion of role and involvement in setting up QMS
4
3
2
1
2) The way the fundamental QMS documentation was developed
4
3
2
1
3) Length of time from the start of preparation to the achievement of ISO 9001 certification
4
3
2
1
4) Motives for developing QMS
4
3
2
1
14

Questionnaire survey:
Design of questionnaire sheet that essentially consists of
o Current status of QMSs implementation in Indian construction companies
o Implementation of ISO 9001 principles and elements
o Problems influencing effective QMS implementation
o Company performance in terms of major achievements during
the implementation of QMS

15

Method of Analysis:

Primary Analysis
A Descriptive statistical analysis
Measurement of central tendency (Mean, Median, Mode)
Measurement of variation (Standard deviation)

Secondary Analysis
ANOVA Test
To check whether different profiles of organisational culture variables
have different influence on the QMS variable.

16

Data Collection:

43 questionnaire booklets were filled by 37 companies located across India.


These Companies include L&T, AFCONS, Gammon India, NCC, Shapoorji
Pallonji, SEW, GMR, Bharathi reality, Aarvee Associates etc..

The Respondents can be classified into three groups:


Quality Management Representatives (QMRs) - high level
Managers (MRs) - middle level
Project/Site Engineers (SEs) - Basic level

17

Profiles of Respondents:

40%

49%
12%

QMRs - 5
Managers - 17
Engineers - 21
Total = 43

Individual Respondents Levels by Percentage

18

Profiles of Respondents:
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

Total = 43
High Level

Middle Level

Low level

Individual Respondents Work Experience

19

Profiles of Respondents:
19%

24%

57%

< 10 Years - 7
10-20 Years - 21
> 20 Years - 9

Total = 37

Age of the Company

20

Current Status of QMS Implementation:


1.

During Development of QMS

VH

FH

NH

21.88

19

59.38

15.62

3.12

Respondents

Consultant assistance
30

Opinions of Consultant Roles

25

<25%

25-50%

51-75%

76-100%

15.62

17

53.13

25

6.25

20
15

Level of Consultant Roles

10
5
0

Yes

No

Consultant services during the ISO 9001 registration process


21

1.

During Development of QMS

Development of QMS documentation

No of
Respondents

QA team and the consultant developed the


document

%
16.28

The consultant developed the document

9.30

QA team developed the Document

39.53

Every division prepared a draft of the document

34.88

Total

43

100

Development of quality management systems documentation

22

1.

During Development of QMS

Period

No of Respondents

< 6 Months

18

41.86

6 12 Months

15

34.88

13 18 Months

13.95

19 24 Months

9.30

43

100

Total

Length of Time for ISO 9001 Certification

23

1.

During Development of QMS

Rank Motives driven the development of companys QMS under ISO 9001

Mode Median

Mean

SD

1st

To effectively and efficiently control project activities

2.24324

1.40249

1st

To minimise poor quality of construction processes and products

2.48649

3.53553

2nd

For the betterment of the companys overall management system

3.91892

2.24076

3rd

To fulfill clients requests as part of the bidding process

5.10811

1.62931

3rd

To improve business performance

5.16216

1.46275

4th

To improve the companys prestige (e.g. image, reputation)

5.43243

2.08887

4th

To enter the international construction market

5.51351

2.25612

4th

As a requirement from the Ministry of Public Works

6.13514

1.60143

Initial Motivation of Companies in Applying for ISO 9001 Certification

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2. Levels of quality management system implementation


Rank

QMS-ISO 9001 Principles

Mean

SD

LoI

Customer focus (1st P)

3.628

0.536

Mutually beneficial supplier relationships (8th P)

3.163

0.785

Leadership (2nd P)

3.140

0.743

Continual improvement (6th P)

3.116

0.879

Process approach (4th P)

3.093

0.648

People involvement (3rd P)

3.047

0.653

Factual approach to decision making (7th P)

2.767

0.868

Systems approach (5th P)

2.744

0.978

Total QMS-ISO 9001 Principles

3.087

0.807

Company Implementation Levels of ISO 9001 Principles

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2. Levels of quality management system implementation

First QMS principle

Between Groups
Within Groups
Total

Second QMS principle

Between Groups
Within Groups
Total

Third QMS principle

Between Groups
Within Groups
Total

Fourth QMS principle

Between Groups
Within Groups
Total

Fifth QMS principle

Between Groups
Within Groups
Total

Sixth QMS principle

Between Groups
Within Groups
Total

Seventh QMS principle

Between Groups
Within Groups
Total

Eighth QMS principle

Between Groups
Within Groups
Total

Sum of
Squares
1.643
10.403
12.047
1.912
21.250
23.163
1.990
15.917
17.907
0.618
17.010
17.628
4.465
35.721
40.186
1.706
30.713
32.419
1.149
30.526
31.675
2.229
23.632
25.861

df

Mean Square
2.00
40.00
42.00
2.00
40.00
42.00
2.00
40.00
42.00
2.00
40.00
42.00
2.00
40.00
42.00
2.00
40.00
42.00
2.00
40.00
42.00
2.00
40.00
42.00

P-value

0.822
0.260

3.159

0.053

0.956
0.531

1.800

0.179

0.995
0.398

2.500

0.095

0.309
0.425

0.727

0.490

2.233
0.893

2.500

0.095

0.853
0.768

1.111

0.339

0.575
0.763

0.753

0.478

1.115
0.591

1.887

0.165

ANOVA Table for QMS Principles


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2. Levels of quality management system implementation


Rank

QMS-ISO 9001 Elements

Mean

SD

LoI

Process control (9th E)

3.488

0.593

Control of a nonconforming product (13th E)

3.349

0.686

Contract review (3rd E)

3.326

0.566

Inspection, measuring and test equipment (11th E)

3.279

0.934

Purchasing (6th E)

3.256

0.621

Inspection and testing (10th E)

3.256

0.693

Design control (4th E)

3.256

0.727

Document and data control (5th E)

3.233

0.751

Management responsibility (1st E)

3.209

0.675

10

Inspection and test status (12th E)

3.209

0.804

Company Implementation Levels of ISO 9001 Elements

27

2. Levels of quality management system implementation


Rank
11

QMS-ISO 9001 Elements


Control of customer-supplied product (7th E)

Mean

SD

LoI

3.186

0.764

12

Corrective and preventive action (14th E)

3.116

0.731

13

Product identification and traceability (8th E)

3.116

0.763

14

Control of quality records (16th E)

3.116

0.879

15

Quality system (2nd E)

3.023

0.740

16

Servicing (19th E)

2.930

0.910

17

2.907

0.718

18

Handling, storage, packaging, preservation and


delivery (15th E)
Training (18th E)

2.814

0.795

19

Internal quality audits (17th E)

2.814

0.907

20

Statistical techniques (20th E)

2.767

0.718

Total QMS-ISO 9001 Elements

3.133

0.778

Company Implementation Levels of ISO 9001 Elements

28

2. Levels of quality management system implementation


Sum of
Squares

df

Mean
Square

P-value

QMS element 5

Between Groups
Within Groups
Total

3.663
20.011
23.674

2.00
40.00
42.00

1.832
0.500

3.661

0.035

QMS element 14

Between Groups
Within Groups
Total

4.145
18.273
22.418

2.00
40.00
42.00

2.073
0.457

4.537

0.017

QMS element 17

Between Groups
Within Groups
Total

10.443
24.068
34.511

2.00
40.00
42.00

5.221
0.602

8.678

0.001

ANOVA Table for QMS Elements

29

2. Levels of quality management system implementation


Position of Respondent

QMS element 5

QMS element

QMS element 17

14
High Level

Middle Level

Low Level

Total

Mean

3.2

3.6

Std. Deviation

0.7

0.8

Mean

3.253

3.471

2.235

Std. Deviation

0.441

0.265

0.691

Mean

3.048

2.810

3.095

Std. Deviation

0.648

0.562

0.491

Mean

3.233

3.116

2.814

Std. Deviation

0.751

0.731

0.907

Report ANOVA for the QMS Elements

30

3. Problems affecting effective QMS implementation


Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Barriers
Lack of a well-design reward system (B9)
Misleading QMS purposes (B1)
Uncertainty with sub-contractors and supplier quality
systems (B12)
Lack of effective internal communication (B10)

Mean
2.674
2.442

SD
0.778
0.666

LoB
3
2

2.233

0.782

2.209

0.833

ISO 9001is a matter of fulfilling audit requirements (B7)

2.186

0.907

Lack of effective management response (B5)


Lack of strong motivation (B4)
Lack of corporate commitment (B3)
Resistance to QMS implementation (B13)
Failure in disseminating ISO 9001-QMS (B8)
Lack of funding for QMS implementation (B14)
ISO 9001 is a documentation matter instead of
opportunity to make a change (B2)

2.140
2.116
2.070
2
1.977
1.977

0.676
0.625
0.856
0.756
0.707
0.740

2
2
2
2
2
2

1.907

0.684

Difficulty in understanding ISO 9001 terminology (B6)

1.884

0.586

Poor external communication (B11)


Total Barriers

1.884
2.121

0.731
0.766

2
2

Barriers to the Effective Quality Management System Practices

31

4. Key performance indicators


Rank
1

Mean

SD

LoKPI

Quality of services and products (KPI5)

3.186

0.588

Sales growth for the preceding two years (KPI2)

3.023

0.707

0.577

Profitability for the preceding two years (KPI1)

2.907

0.684

New product innovation and development (KPI7)

2.837

0.754

Market shares for the most recent year (KPI3)

2.791

0.709

Generating employee satisfaction (KPI8)

2.628

0.618

Global market contracts acquired (KPI4)

1.954

0.575

2.791

0.738

2
3
4
5

Key Performance Indicators

Sustainable construction products (KPI6)

Total Barriers

Contractors Key Performance Indicators

32

Results and Discussion:


Most local construction companies took less than six months to achieve ISO 9001
certification, while national contractors took between six and 12 months.
The common motives that least drives Indian construction companies to apply for ISO
9001 certification is as a requirement from the Ministry of Public Works and to enter
the international construction market
The Indian contractors appear to still doubt the many advantages associated with
implementing the system
Result in having low competitiveness
33

Results and Discussion:


The findings indicate a lack of use of cause and effect diagrams and statistical process
control as typical tools.
Some studies report that effective decisions on quality processes are made mainly on the
use of data analysis and information with the assistance of some statistical tools.
Construction industry efforts to improve quality have been slow and fragmented as well
as being fraught with difficulties in implementing ISO 9001
This also due to the characteristics of the construction industry and its dynamic project
processes. For QMS implementation and an approach such as ISO 9001 to be a real
solution, all levels of a companys structure need to be bound by a strong commitment
towards it.

34

Results and Discussion:


The results of this study show that apparently Indian construction companies do not
often experience problems with implementing ISO 9001.
However there were some misunderstandings from the managers surveyed regarding the
purpose for obtaining the ISO 9001 certification.
People concede the purpose of implementation of TQM in construction companies must
be in line with the companys Organisational culture.
Other researchers in the construction quality systems and Organisational culture area
endorse this view by revealing that quality culture and corporate culture are considered
to be determinant factors in contributing to the successful or unsuccessful
implementation and maintenance of an ISO 9001 quality system.
Studies examining the effects of QMS implementation in the construction industry show
that not only do customers benefit substantially from it, but so does the construction
company.
35

Conclusions:
The aim was achieved through the collection and analysis of data, combined with the
incorporation of extant literature to address issues relating to the effectiveness and
continual improvement of the implementation of quality management systems, within the
context of the Indian construction.
This study provides empirical evidence in support of the notion that problematic issues
associated with the implementation of QMS-ISO 9001 can have an impact on the
effective implementation of the QMS.
Within Indian context, the study provides empirical evidence to conclude that the status
of having high business performance of the ISO 9001 certified construction companies
cannot be directly attributed to the possession of ISO 9001 certification.
One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) analysis in this study provided a valuable
understanding of the influence of different profiles on QMS-ISO 9001 standard
implementation by Indian construction companies.
36

Research Contributions:
The research contributions can be viewed from three different perspectives:

1. A contribution to
the body of knowledge
Due to the lack of the
research in this area, there is
a scarcity of literature on the
Competing Values and QMSISO 9001 implementation, the
results reported contribute to
and enrich the literature in
this area.

2. A contribution to
the construction
industry
Generally, they accept the fact
that quality is the basis for
moving companies forward,
both in relation to satisfying
clients and in the attainment
of a sustainable competitive
advantage. The result
potentially fit all grades in the
large-scale Indian construction
industry, enabling them to
develop strong motives in
order to successfully achieve
effective quality management
practices and quality
deliverables in infrastructure
project delivery.

3. A contribution for
policy
The research findings will
provide a future reference for
facilitating consultation and
communication among the
construction services
providers, construction
companies associations and
the Government, in defining
and determining policy for
more widespread promotion
and implementation of QMSs,
in the Indian construction
industry.

37

Limitation and Recommendations:


Limitations
Current conditions
Not able to explore the
implementation within construction
companies.
Lack of involvement of certain
external respondents

Recommendations
Future implementation within
large-scale construction
companies.
Sampled construction
organisations, which are willing to
be pilot-projects for the
implementation.
Large number of respondents
including the external respondents

38

References:

Abdul Hakim bin Mohammed dan Mat Naim bin Abdullah, Asmoni (2006), Quality Management
System in Construction, International Conference on Construction Industry-2006.

Debby Willar (2012), Improving Quality Management System Implementation in Indonesian


Construction companies. Queensland University of Technology.

Ilias Said, Abd Rahman Ayub, Arman Abd Razaki & Tee Kuan Kooi (2011), Factors affecting
Construction Organisation Quality Management System in The Malaysian Construction Industry.

Jerald L. Rounds and Nai-Yuan Chi (1985), Total Quality Management for construction, Journal of
Construction Engineering and Management, ASCE, Vol. 111, No. 2, pp.117-128

Juran, J.M. (1998) Jurans Quality Handbook, 5th Edition, McGraw Hill, New York.

Lydia Nyomek (2010), The Integration of Quality Management in Construction Industry,


University Technology Malaysia.

Peter Hoonakker, Pascale Carayon and Todd Loushine (2010), Barriers and benefits of quality
management in the construction industry: An empirical study, Taylor & Francis, Vol. 21, No. 9,
2010, pp.953-969.

39

THANK
YOU
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