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What is Biodiversity?

The variety of all living things on earth!

Levels of Biological Diversity

1. Diversity of genes
example: dogs (Chihuahuas, beagles, and
2. Diversity of species
example: monkeys, dragonflies, and
meadow beauties are all different species
or kinds of animals or plants.
3. Variety of ecosystems
Ecosystems or the environment like lakes,
coral reefs, ponds, and tropical rain
forests has its own set of species living in

Survey on the Flora and

Fauna in the Philippines

PHILIPPINES: high species

diversity and high endemicity
Species that have
reduced in number to
be at critical level

An organism
exclusively native to a
place or biota

Philippine Biodiversity

206+ species of terrestrial mammals, 117 species (57%) endemic
27 species of marine mammals
* Heaney et al. 2010


only in

One of the world's rarest mammals

lives in the dwindling forest of Panay
Island: Philippine spotted deer (Cervus
alfredi), considered by many as the
most endangered deer in the planet
Deer that cannot be found
elsewhere: the Calamian hog
deer or Calamian deer
have longer and darker legs,
compared with other hog deer.
By 1996, its population further
declined to only about 900,
prompting conservationists to
declare it as an endangered

The Mammals

Unique pygmy water

buffalos (Bubalus
mindorensis) endemic to
Mindoro listed as one of
the ten most
endangered species in
the world.
From 10,000 heads in
the 1900's, population
went down to 369 heads
in the late 1980's to as
few as 20 heads roaming
in the wild today

The Mammals

Philippine tarsier (Tarsius

syrichta) measures only about
twelve centimeters in length.

Its two big eyes cannot move

and do not have a tapetum the upper protective tissue;
can turn its head 180 degrees.

Found in the islands of Samar,

Leyte, Bohol and Mindanao,
the Philippine tarsier got its
name from its elongated
tarsus bone.

Today, there are only about

1,000 tarsiers inhabiting the
wilds of Corella town in Bohol
province where the biggest
concentration of these rare
animals was once reported.

Ensuring the continued

existence of the Philippine
tarsiers is the Philippine
Tarsier Foundation Inc.

The Mammals

The Palawan bearcat population is

threatened by human activities.

The Mammals

South of Palawan, lies the Balabac Island, home

of the world's smallest hoofed mammal - the
Philippine mouse deer.
Locally known as Pilandok (Tragalus nigricans),
this ruminant stands only about 40 centimeters at
the shoulder level.
While the mouse deer are widely distributed
across Asia, their dwindling population has
alarmed the World Conservation Union, which
declared them as endangered in 1996.

The Mammals

Dugongs or sea cows,

the only herbivorous marine
mammals, are often sighted in
Philippine waters,
particularly near Palawan
province and southern
A dugong can live more than 70

The Mammals

The Philippine government has

banned the commercial
exploitation of dugong since 1991.

Golden- capped fruit Bat

Acerdon jubatus

Over the years,

these two species of
giant fruit bats have
roamed around the
Subic Forest National
Protected Area,
which is considered
the biggest roosting
site of bats in the

The Mammals

The smallest bat in the world is the Philippine

bamboo bat (vespertilionid), which belongs to the
vespertilionid family. This bat measures about four
centimeters (1 1/2 inches) in length and has a
wingspan of 15 cm. Approximately, it weighs 1.5
grams (1/20 ounce).

The Mammals

The Mindoro Pallid Flying

Fox smallest flying fox in
the Philippines

The Philippine tube-nosed bat,

Nyctimene rabori of Negros is
considered highly endangered

The Mammals

bare-backed fruit bat or Dobsonia chapmani

Believed to
have become
extinct in
1970s as a
result of the
combination of
disturbance by
guano miners,
and hunting

The Mammals

The continuous denudation of tropical

forests in the country threatens the
remaining population of kagwang,
which used to abound in the
wilderness of Basilan, Leyte, Samar,
Bohol and Mindanao.

The Mammals

Philippine government declared

kagwang as an endangered species
and banned its commercial

The Visayan Warty Pig

Sus cebifrons

1994: Endangered
1996 - 2004: Critically

Northern Luzon Giant Cloud Rat

Phloeomys pallidus
Widespread in northern and central
From sea level to high mountains (at
least 2000 m), in primary and
secondary forest and heavily disturbed

The Mammals

Philippine Biodiversity

576+ species, 195 endemic

Bleeding Heart Pigeon

nesting in Luzon.


Causes of Endangerment of Birds

They are large, easily seen birds and
thus vulnerable to being shot;
They are trapped for pets or food;
Their habitat has been destroyed,
especially lowland virgin forest; and
They are restricted to one or two

The Philippine Eagle : Pithecophaga jefferyi

Lives in the rainforests of
Isabela, Samar, Leyte and
It has similarities with Papua
New Guinea's Harpy Eagle
(Harpyopsis novaeguinea).
It lives on large snakes,
hornbills, civet cats, flying
lemurs and monkeys - the
reason why it is also called
monkey-eating eagle.
With an estimated population
of 100 to 300 today, the
Philippine eagle is in danger of
It is one of the 400 exotic bird
species in the Philippines,
which, if not protected, would
disappear from the face of the


The Philippine or Red-vented Cockatoo

(Cacatua haematuropygia)

The Palawan Peacock Pheasant

(Polyplectron emphanum)


The Sulu Hornbill

(Anthracoceros montani)

The Mindoro Imperial Pigeon

(Ducula mindorensis)

Sulu hornbill and Cebu black shama, the

Philippine Eagle might follow the Cebu
flowerpecker which is now presumed


Cebu Black Shama

Cebu Flowerpecker
(now presumed extinct)

Endemicsand Endangered

Visayan wrinkled hornbill

Aceros waldeni

The Negros Bleeding Heart Pigeon

Gallicolumba platenae

Red-bellied pitta (Pitta erythrogaster)

Endemicsand still widespread


Philippine Biodiversity

258+ species, 170 (66%) endemic
* Diesmos et al. 2002

I'm a leatherback, the largest sea turtle

in the world. I can grow up to 7ft long
and weigh over 2,000 lbs! I can also
dive deeper than any other sea turtle up to 4,200 feet!.

Philippine crocodiles
less than 200 in the

Philippine Biodiversity

101+ species, 78 (77%) endemics
* Diesmos et al. 2002

-not a worm nor
-very hard
to find.

Pygmy Forest
-smallest frog in
Cordillera and Sierra Madre

Crocodylus porosus, it is different from

Mindoro's freshwater crocodile (Crocodylus
There were tales
that a 27-foot
crocodile was
killed near Lake
Taal in Batangas
in 1823.
It reportedly
took 40 men to
bring the body

Amphibians and Reptiles

Busuanga, Culion, and Palawan

Philippine flat- headed frog
Barbourula busuangensis

inhabits clear, unpolluted swift-flowing

mountain streams and rivers in lowland
rainforests where it usually floats near the
surface of the water unless disturbed,
when it will hide under submerged rocks

Amphibians and Reptiles

southern Luzon and

Catanduanes Island
in the Philippines,
where it inhabits the
forested slopes of
low mountains

Grays monitor
Varanus olivaceus

Amphibians and Reptiles

Loggerhead (Caretta caretta)

Olive Ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea)

Leatherback sea turtle

Philippine pond turtle

Heosemys leytensis

Philippine Green turtle

Hawksbill sea turtle

Amphibians and Reptiles

Philippine Biodiversity

About 4,050 species in the Indo-Pacific region
2,228 coral reef fish species in the Coral Triangle (37%
World; 56% Indo-Pacific)
People call me Nemo these
days, which is short for
anemonefish. I make my
home among the stinging
tentacles of a sea anemone.

Yes, I'm a fish! I'm a

young batfish and I'm
mimicking a toxic
flatworm so predators
won't eat me.

I'm a whale shark,

the largest fish in
the sea! But I'm no
a whale, I'm a
shark. You'll
me swimming

Donsol, a fishing town in Sorsogon province,

serves as a sanctuary to a group of 40 whale
sharks (Rhincodon typus), which are considered
as the largest fish in the world.
Locally known as "butanding", whale sharks
visit the waters of Donsol from November to May.
They travel across the oceans but nowhere else
have they been sighted in a larger group than in
the waters of Sorsogon.

In 1996, a marine biologist discovered that whale sharks are

ovoviviparous, which means that the females produce live
offspring from eggs hatched in the uterus.

The Philippine government declared whale sharks as endangered

species in 1998, thereby banning its plunder and exploitation.

Right now, the Department of Tourism is promoting eco-tourism to

protect the whale sharks in Donsol.


The world's smallest freshwater fish is found in the

Philippines. The dwarf goby (Pandaka pygmaea) measures
1.2 centimeters or less than half of an inch, the tiniest
known vertebrate.
American Ichthyologist Albert Herre first discovered it in
Malabon River in 1925.


it would take a thousand to fill a tablespoon

World's smallest commercial fish: Sinarapan (Mistichthys luzonensis)

found only in Lakes Bato and Buhi in Camarines Sur province.
Sinarapan grows to an average length of 1.25 centimeters, only slightly
longer than the dwarf goby.
Today, unabated fishing in the two lakes threatens the population of


Sawtail Catshark

Chaetodontoplus caeruleopunctatus
Blue-spotted angelfish

Philippine Anchovy: Dilis or Bolinao

Exyrias: goby or biya


More than 500 of the world's 700 coral species

are found under the waters of the Philippines,
which is a part of the Coral Triangle - a region in
the Pacific Ocean.

There are at least 50 known seahorse species in

the world. They inhabit temperate and tropical
waters but most of them are concentrated in the
warm coastal waters of the Philippines.

The seahorse's scientific genus name,

Hippocampus is a Greek word, which means,
"bent horse."

At least 47 nations and territories around the

world are involved in buying and selling
seahorses. The largest known importers are
China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan.

Among the largest exporters is the Philippines.


Philippine Biodiversity

Mollusks: 22,000 species
Insects: 20,940+ species, 70% endemic
Corals: At least 484 hard coral species
I'm not called flamboyant
cuttlefish for nothing! I change
I'm called Palawan
color very quickly when I'm
disturbed or attacked. You birdwing because I have a
very large wingspan for a
wouldn't want to eat me though
butterfly. I can fly really
because I'm poisonous!

high and for long

distances. You can only
find me in Palawan.

Do I remind you of
something? A brain
perhaps? That's why
I'm called brain coral
I can grow up to 6ft
and live up to 900

Philippine Biodiversity

Mollusks: 22,000 species
Insects: 20,940+ species, 70% endemic
Corals: At least 484 hard coral species
Did you know? Philippine Coral Reefs are considered to be the
center of the center of marine biodiversity!

Tridacna gigas, one of the world's largest shells

can be found under Philippine waters.
Tridacna gigas grows as large as one meter in length
and weighs 600 pounds

The Invertebrates

Pisidum, the world's tiniest shell,

can be found under Philippine waters.
Pisidum is less than
1 millimeter long

The Invertebrates

A shell called glory of the sea (Connus gloriamaris) is

also found in the Philippines and considered as one of
the most expensive shells in the world.

The Invertebrates

Philippine Biodiversity

15,000+ kinds of plants, 50% endemic
I'm called Rafflesia and I'm a
parasitic plant. I have the
largest flower of any plant, but
don't come too close because
it stinks!

I'm a Philippine
Ironwood, the hardest
hardwood species in
the Philippines. If my
trunk was 70cm in
diameter, it would take
you 2-4 days to cut it!

I'm Apitong, and I

belong to a family of
trees that are importa
sources of timber.
Please don't cut me
down though because
am already critically

Total Plant Species: 9,2536

Endemic Plant Species: 6, 091
Endemics as Percentage of World
Total: 2.0

The Plants

Velvet Apple, Mabolo

Diospyros discolor

There are more than 150 species of palms

and dipterocarps in the hotspot, and around
two-thirds of these are found nowhere else in
the world.

Among the endemic fruit trees

in the Philippines are durian,
mabolo, pili and bignay

The Plants

Gingers, begonias, gesneriads, orchids and

pandans are particularly high in endemic

As many as 9,000 flowering plants can

be found in the country

Of the 1,000
species of
orchids found in
the Philippines,
70 percent are
restricted to the

The Plants

World Record Animals

found in the Philippines

Giant Clam
The largest clam in the world

Whale Shark
The largest fish in the sea

Philippine Pygmy Forest Frog

The smallest frog in the Philippines

Philippine Crocodile
The most endangered crocodile in the world.

Leatherback Sea Turtle

The largest sea turtle in the world

Philippine Eagle
The largest raptor in the world

Golden-Crowned Flying Fox and Large Flying Fox

The largest bats in the world

The largest single flower in the world

Protected Areas
are portions of land and water set aside for their unique biological
and physical significance.
- They are managed to enhanced biological diversity and protected
against human destruction.

Endangered Endemic Species

Coron Islands
El Nido Marine Reserve
Malampaya Sound
Mt. Pulag (Benguet)
Mt. Isaraog (Camarines Sur)
Mt. Inglit Baco (Mindoro)
Mt. Guiting-Guiting (Romblon)
Mt. Malindang (Misamis Occidental)

10 Protected Areas in the

Batanes habitatPhilippines
of migratory birds & endemic birds and
Northern Sierra Madre National Park Philippine Eagle,
deer, dipterocarp species, sea grass beds, coral reefs.
Subic Bay National Park endangered bat species
Apo Reef Marine National Park coral reefs and species
of fish, shells and corals
Mt. Kanlaon
Mt. Apo and Mt. Katanglad
Agusan Marsh Sanctuary largest swamp in the country
Siargao Wildlife Sanctuary crocodiles and birds, 500
species of plants and animals, 4,000 hectares of
Turtle Island Marine National Park nesting site of marine

There are several threats to

biodiversity as follows:
Habitat destruction - deforestation
Species introductions
Global Climate Change

There are two general categories of

reasons why it is important to protect
Based on arguments of principles,
ethics, and spirituality
Other species have a right to exist and
therefore it is simply wrong to drive them to
Ecosystems and their species are Deitys
creation, thus, a sin to destroy them

Based on human self-interest

of direct and indirect value to humans

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