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# Differentiation

## Basic Rules of Differentiation

The Product and Quotient Rules
The Chain Rule
Marginal Functions in Economics
Higher-Order Derivatives
Implicit Differentiation and Related Rates
Differentials

## Basic Differentiation Rules

d
1.
c 0
dx

c is a constant

Ex. f ( x) 5
f ( x) 0

d n
x nx n 1
2.
dx

Ex. f ( x) x 7
f ( x) 7 x 6

n is a real number

## Basic Differentiation Rules

d
d
3.
cf ( x) c f ( x)
dx
dx

Ex. f ( x) 3 x

c is a constant

f ( x ) 3 8 x 7 24 x 7

d
d
d
4. dx f x g x dx f ( x) dx g ( x)

Ex. f ( x) 7 x12
f ( x) 0 12 x11 12 x11

## More Differentiation Rules

5. Product Rule
d
f x g x
dx

d
d
f ( x) g ( x) g ( x) f ( x)
dx
dx

1 x 2 x 5 21x

3
7
2
Ex. f ( x) x 2 x 5 3 x 8 x 1

f ( x) 3 x 2 2 3 x 7 8 x 2
Derivative
of the first
function

16 x

Derivative of
the second
function

9
7
6
4
2

f ( x) 30 x 48 x 105 x 40 x 45 x 80 x 2

## More Differentiation Rules

6. Quotient Rule
d

dx

d
d
g ( x) f ( x) f ( x) g ( x)
f x
dx
dx

2
g ( x)
g
(
x
)

lo d hi hi d lo
d hi

dx lo
lo lo

## More Differentiation Rules

6. Quotient Rule (cont.)
3x 5
Ex. f ( x) 2
x 2
Derivative of
the numerator

f ( x)

Derivative of
the denominator

3 x 2 2 2 x 3x 5

3x 2 10 x 6

## More Differentiation Rules

7. The Chain Rule

If h( x) g f ( x) then

h( x) g f ( x) f ( x)
Note: h(x) is a composite function.
Another Version:

dy dy du

dx du dx

## The General Power Rule:

If h( x) f ( x)

n, real

h( x) n f ( x)

n 1

then

f ( x)

Ex. f ( x) 3 x 4 x 3 x 4 x

1
2

f ( x) 3x 4 x
2
3x 2

3x 2 4 x

1 2

12

6x 4

## Chain Rule Example

2
x

Ex. G ( x)

3 x 5

2 x 1 3 x 5 2 2 x 1 3

G( x) 7

2

3
x

3x 5

2 x 1

G( x) 7

3 x 5

13

3x 5

91 2 x 1

3x 5

## Chain Rule Example

Ex. y u

52

, u 7 x 3x
dy dy du

dx du dx

5 32
u 56 x 7 6 x
Sub in for u
2
32
5
8
2
7 x 3x
56 x 7 6 x
2

140 x

15 x 7 x

3x

32

Marginal Functions
The Marginal Cost Function approximates the change in
the actual cost of producing an additional unit.
The Marginal Average Cost Function measures the rate
of change of the average cost function with respect to the
number of units produced.
The Marginal Revenue Function measures the rate of
change of the revenue function. It approximates the revenue
from the sale of an additional unit.
The Marginal Profit Function measures the rate of change
of the profit function. It approximates the profit from the sale

Cost Functions
Given a cost function, C(x),
the Marginal Cost Function is

C ( x)
the Average Cost Function is

C ( x)
C
x
the Marginal Average Cost Function is

C ( x)

Revenue Functions
Given a revenue function, R(x),
the Marginal Revenue Function is

R( x)

Profit Functions
Given a profit function, P(x),
the Marginal Profit Function is

P( x)

Elasticity of Demand
If f is a differentiable demand function defined by

x f ( p)
Then the elasticity of demand at price p is given by

E p
Demand is:

pf p
f p

## Elastic if E(p) > 1

Unitary if E(p) = 1
Inelastic if E(p) < 1

Elasticity of Demand
If the demand is elastic at p, then an increase in unit
price causes a decrease in revenue. A decrease in unit
price causes an increase in revenue.
If the demand is unitary at p, then with an increase
in unit price the revenue will stay about the same.
If the demand is inelastic at p, then an increase in
unit price causes an increase in revenue. A decrease
in unit price causes a decrease in revenue.

Example
Consider the demand equation
p 0.02 x 400 0 x 20, 000
which describes the relationship between the unit
price p in dollars and the quantity demanded x of the
Acrosonic model F loudspeaker systems. Find the
elasticity of demand E ( p ).
Solving the given demand equation for x in

## terms of p, we find x f ( p) 50 p 20, 000.

Therefore,
p 50
pf ( p )
p
E ( p)

=
f ( p)
50 p 20, 000 400 p

Example
The monthly demand for T-shirts is given by

0 x 400

p 0.05 x 25

## where p denotes the wholesale unit price in dollars

and x denotes the quantity demanded. The monthly
cost function for these T-shirts is
2

C ( x) 0.001x 2 x 200
1. Find the revenue and profit functions.
2. Find the marginal cost, marginal revenue, and
marginal profit functions.
3. Find the marginal average cost function.

Solution
1. Find the revenue and profit functions.
Revenue = xp

x 0.05 x 25 0.05 x 25 x
2

2

## 0.05 x 25 x 0.001x 2 x 200

0.049 x 2 23 x 200

## 2. Find the marginal cost, marginal revenue, and

marginal profit functions.
Marginal Cost = C ( x )

0.002 x 2

......

Solution
2. (cont.) Find the marginal revenue and marginal
profit functions.
Marginal revenue = R( x)

0.1x 25
Marginal profit = P( x)

0.098 x 23
3. Find the marginal average cost function.

C ( x ) 0.001x 2 200 x
2

C ( x) 0.001 200 x

Higher Derivatives
The second derivative of a function f is the derivative
of the derivative of f at a point x in the domain of the
first derivative.
Derivative
Second
Third
Fourth
nth

Notations

d2y
dx 2

d3y
dx3

(4)

d4y
dx 4

dny
dx n

f
f

## Example of Higher Derivatives

Given f ( x) 3 x5 2 x3 14 find f ( x).

f ( x) 15 x 4 6 x 2

f ( x) 60 x 12 x
3

f ( x) 180 x 2 12

## Example of Higher Derivatives

2x 1
Given f ( x)
find f (2).
3x 2
f ( x)

2 3 x 2 3 2 x 1

3x 2

f ( x) 14 3 x 2

f (2)

42

3(2) 2

3x 2

42

3x 2

42 21
3
32
4

7 3 x 2

Implicit Differentiation
y 3x3 4 x 17
y is expressed explicitly as a function of x.

y 3 xy 3x 1
y is expressed implicitly as a function of x.

## To differentiate the implicit equation, we write f (x) in

place of y to get:

f ( x)

x f ( x) 3x 1

## Implicit Differentiation (cont.)

Now differentiate f ( x) x f ( x) 3 x 1
3

## using the chain rule:

3 f ( x) f ( x) f ( x) xf ( x) 3
2

## which can be written in the form

subbing in y
3 y 2 y y xy 3

y 3 y 2 x 3 y
y

3 y
3 y2 x

Solve for y

Related Rates
Look at how the rate of change of one quantity is
related to the rate of change of another quantity.
Ex. Two cars leave an intersection at the same
time. One car travels north at 35 mi./hr.,
the other travels west at 60 mi./hr. How
fast is the distance between them changing
after 2 hours?
Note: The rate of change of the distance between them is
related to the rate at which the cars are traveling.

Related Rates
Steps to solve a related rate problem:
1. Assign a variable to each quantity.
Draw a diagram if appropriate.
2. Write down the known values/rates.
3. Relate variables with an equation.
4. Differentiate the equation implicitly.
5. Plug in values and solve.

## Ex. Two cars leave an intersection at the same time. One

car travels north at 35 mi./hr., the other travels east at 60
mi./hr. How fast is the distance between them changing
after 2 hours?
dx
60
dt

dy
35
dt

x 120

y 70

Distance = z

y
x

From original
relationship

x2 y 2 z 2

dx
dy
dz
2x 2 y
2z
dt
dt
dt
dz
2(120)(60) 2(70)(35) 2 10 193
dt
dz

dt

69.5 mi./hr.

Increments
An increment in x represents a change from x1
to x2 and is defined by:

x x2 x1

## An increment in y represents a change in y and

is defined by:

y f ( x x) f ( x)

Differentials
Let y = f (x) be a differentiable function, then the
differential of x, denoted dx, is such that dx x.
The differential of y, denoted dy, is

dy f ( x)x f ( x)dx
Note: y

## measures actual change in y

dy measures approximate change in y

Example
Given

f ( x) 3x x, find:

x 3.02 3 0.02

## 2. y and dy as x changes from 3 to 3.02.

y f (3.02) f (3)
24.3412 24 0.3412

dy f ( x)dx 6 x 1 dx
6(3) 1 (0.02) 0.34

Example
The total cost incurred in operating a certain type of
truck on a 500-mile trip, traveling at an average speed
of v mph, is estimated to be
4500
dollars
v
Find the approximate change in the total operating cost when
the average speed is increased from 55 mph to 58 mph.
C (v ) 125 v

## With v 55 and v 3, we find

4500

v dv C (v )dv 1 2
v

4500

3 1 3 1.46
3025

v 55

by \$1.46.