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ENVIRONMENTAL

ENGINEERING
Catalino Noceja Mendoza, DMS, PhD, DBA
Know-Well

Dr. Catalino N.Mendoza

Environment
Derived from a French word environner
means to encircle or surround.
It defines as the circumstances and
conditions that surround an organism or a
group of organisms.
It also means the social and cultural
conditions that affect an individual or a
community
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Continued
Literary means the surrounding external
conditions influencing development or
growth of people, animal or plants; living
or working conditions etc.

Dr. Catalino N.Mendoza

Two Worlds of Environment


1.

2.

Natural world of plants, animals, soil, air,


and water that preceded us by billions of
years and of which we are a part.
The world of social institutions and
artifacts that we created for ourselves
using science, technology, and political
organizations

Dr. Catalino N.Mendoza

Scope of Environment

Atmosphere
Hydrosphere
Lithosphere
Biosphere

Dr. Catalino N.Mendoza

Atmosphere
Composed of nitrogen and oxygen. Besides,
argon, carbon dioxide, and traces of other
gases which is considered as the protective
blanket of gases, surrounding the earth to:
(a) sustains life on the earth.
(b) saves from the hostile environment of
outer space.

Dr. Catalino N.Mendoza

Hydrosphere
Comprises all types of water resources such
as oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, streams,
reservoirs, polar icecaps, glaciers, and
ground water.

Dr. Catalino N.Mendoza

Lithospere
The outer mantle of the solid earth which
consists of minerals occurring in the
earths crusts and the soil such as
minerals, organic matter, air and water.

Dr. Catalino N.Mendoza

Biosphere
It indicates the realm of living organisms and
their interactions with environment, viz
atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere

Dr. Catalino N.Mendoza

Elements of Environment

Physical
Biological
Cultural

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Physical Elements
Consist of space, landforms, water bodies,
climate soils, rocks and minerals. They
determine the variable character of the
human habitat, its opportunities as well as
limitations.

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Biological Elements

Consists of plants, animals, microorganisms


and men constituting the biosphere.

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Cultural Elements

Consists of economic, social and political


that made essentially manmade features,
which make cultural milieu.

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Types of Environments

Physical
Social
Psychological

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Physical Environment

Refers to geographical climate and weather


or physical conditions wherein and
individual lives.

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Social Environment
Include an individuals social, economic and
political condition wherein he lives. The
moral, cultural and emotional forces
influence the life and nature of individual
behavior.

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Psychological Environment

Consists both the person and his goal that


enables us to understand the personality
of an individual.

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Environmental Science
The systematic study of our environment
and our place in it that integrates
information from biology, chemistry,
geography, agriculture and many other
fields which can be used to improve the
ways we treat the world with the help of
the social organization, politics, and the
humanities.
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18

Elements of Environmental Science


1. Sociology
2. Political science
3. Religion
4. Mathematics
5. Physics
6. Chemistry

Dr. Catalino N.Mendoza

7. Engineering
8. Geology
9. Forestry
10. Ecology
11. Ergonomics

19

Principles of Ecology:
Matter,
Energy,
and
Life
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Ecology
The scientific study of relationships between
organism and their environment.
It involves investigating how organisms
acquire and use energy, nutrients, and
water from their environment which
include chemical elements, availability of
liquid water, and moderate temperature.

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Continued
Concerned with the life histories,
distribution, and their behaviour of
individual species as well as the structure
and function of natural systems at the
level of populations, communities and
ecosystem.

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Matter
Anything that takes up space and has mass
which consist of three interchangeable
physical forms or phases: the gas, the
liquid and the solid.
Under any circumstances, matter is neither
created nor destroyed but is recycled over
and over again.

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23

Energy
The capacity to do work and can take many
different forms such as heat, light,
electricity, and chemical energy.
The energy contained in moving objects are
called kinetic energy, while the stored
energy that is latent but available for use
is called potential energy.

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The Carbon Cycle

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The Nitrogen Cycle

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Building Blocks of
Earth and Life

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Important Elements
Living Things
C, H, O, N
Atmosphere
N, O, Ar, C, Ne, He
Earth, rocks
Fe, O, Si, Mg, Ni, Ca,
Al, Na
Economic Metals Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn,
Ni
Primary Toxins
Hg, Pb, Se, Br, Cd, Be,
Rn, Ni, As
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Atoms
The smallest particle that exhibits the
characteristics of an element which is
composed of positively charged protons,
negatively charged electrons and
electrically neutral neutrons.

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Molecules
Are composed of two or more atoms
combine chemically to form units in which
combined two or more atoms of the same
kind is called elemental molecules while of
different kind are called chemical
compounds.

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Compounds
Are made up of two or more elements
combined together by forces of attraction
to create or to form new chemical
composition.

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Environmental Engineering
The systematic way of construction and
reconstruction of the elements of the
environmental science as the primary
source of the sustainability of the
environment or the balance of ecological
system with the proper and appropriate
management of controlling them.

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Continued
It is concerned with the formulation of
strategies and policies involving
environmental protection and developing
programs and projects of a sound
sustainable environmental development.

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Continued
Topics include:
Global Warming
Solid Waste
Waste Water
Deforestation
Terrestrial-biomes
ISO 14000
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What is global warming?

How Global Warming Works

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

Fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas)

Example of the
Greenhouse Effect
The Suns energy
passes through the
cars windshield.
This energy (heat) is
trapped inside the car
and cannot pass back
through the
windshield, causing
the inside of the car
to warm up.

Whats the difference


between global warming
and climate change?

Difference
GLOBAL WARMING

is the increase of the


Earths average
surface temperature
due to a build-up of
greenhouse gases in
the atmosphere.

CLIMATE CHANGE
is a broader term that
refers to long-term
changes in climate,
including average
temperature and
precipitation.

Effects of Global Warming


Rising Sea Level

Habitat Damage and


Species Affected

Increased Temperature

Changes in Water Supply

Whats the proof that


global warming is taking
place?

Portage Glacier
Alaska

1914

Photos: NOAA Photo Collection and Gary Braasch WorldViewOfGlobalWarming.org

2004

Colorado River
Arizona

June 2002

Dec 2003

Why is global warming


happening?

Burning of Fossil Fuels

Pollution from coal,


natural gas, and oil

When did global


warming start?

Global Atmospheric Concentration of CO2

How is global warming


measured?

Ice Core Data

CO2 Measurements Before 1958 - Antarctica

CO2 Atmospheric
Measurements

CO2 Measurements Since 1958 Mauna Loa, Hawaii

1000 Years of CO2 and


Global Warming
Temperature
(Northern Hemisphere)

Year

Year

2000

1800

1600

1400

1200

1000

2000

1800

1600

1400

1200

1000

Parts Per Million

Degree Celsius Increase

CO2 Concentrations

Global
Warming:
Shifting Gears

Billions of Metric Tons Carbon

Goal:
Reductions in
2007
CO2 Per Year

Billions
of Metric
Gigaton
Carbon Tons Carbon

Our Goal

2007

Reductions
in CO2
Per Year

Produce electricity
efficiently
Use electricity
efficiently
Vehicle efficiency
Solar and Wind
Power
Biofuels
Carbon capture
and storage

Whats being done now to


reduce our emissions?

Wind Power

Solar Power

Fuel-Efficiency

Continued
Scientists agree that the burning of fossil
fuels is causing global warming. Since
these fuels are burned for energy, and
everyone uses energy, everyone can help
stop global warming just by using less
energy or energy from renewable
sources!
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What can you do to


help solve the
problem?

Simple Things To Do
Turn off your computer or the TV
when youre not using it.
Take shorter showers. Heating water
uses energy.

Continued
Keep rooms cool by closing the blinds,
shades, or curtains.
Turn off the lights when you leave a room.
Use compact fluorescent bulbs.

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Be Bulb SmartUse CFLs


Incandescent

Whats the
difference?

Compact
Fluorescent

500 lbs.
of coal
1,430 lbs. CO2 pollution avoided
$30 saved

Simple Things To Do
Dress lightly when its hot instead of
turning up the air conditioning. Or use a
fan.

Dress warmly when its cold instead of


turning up the heat.

Continued
Offer to help your parents keep the air filters
on your AC and furnace clean.

Walk short distances instead of asking for a


ride in the car.

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Continued
Plant a tree.

Recycle.

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SOLID WASTE

What is solid waste?


Solid waste is defined as any garbage,
refuse, sludge from waste treatment plant,
water supply treatment plant, or air
pollution control facility and other
materials, including solid, liquid, semisolid,
contained gaseous resulting from
industrials,
commercials, mining and agricultural
operations from community activities

Characteristics of wastes
Corrosive: these are wastes that include
acids or bases that are capable of
corroding metal containers, e.g. tanks
Ignitability: this is waste that can create
fires under certain condition, e.g. waste
oils and solvents

Characteristics of wastes
Reactive: these are unstable in nature, they
cause explosions, toxic fumes when
heated.
Toxicity: waste which are harmful or fatal
when ingested or absorb.

Types of waste
Non Hazardous waste: refuse, garbage,
sludge, municipal trash.
Hazardous waste: solvents acid, heavy
metals, pesticides, and chemical sludges

Types of waste
Radioactive: high and low-level radioactive
waste
Mixed waste: Radioactive organic liquids,
radio active heavy metals. ( Moeller, 2005).

Waste Disposal
The management of waste to prevent harm
to the environment, injury or long term
progressive damage to health.
Disposal of waste is where the intention is to
permanently store the waste for the
duration of its biological and chemical
activity, such that it is rendered harmless.

Waste Management
The collection, transport, processing,
recycling or disposal and monitoring of
waste materials. The term usually relates
to materials produced by human activity,
and is generally undertaken to reduce
their effect on health, the environment or
aesthetics.

Waste Disposal Methods


Ocean Dumping
Advantages: convenient, inexpensive
Disadvantages: ocean overburdened,
destruction of food sources.

Waste Disposal Methods


Sanitary Landfill
Advantages: volume can increase with little
addition of people/equipment
Disadvantages: completed landfill areas can
settle and requires maintenance

Waste Disposal Methods


Incineration
Advantages: requires minimum land, can be
operated in any weather, produces stable
odor free residue
Disadvantages: expensive to build and
operate, high energy requirement,
requires skilled personnel and continuous
maintenance unsightly-smell, waste

Waste Disposal Methods


Open Dumping
Advantage: inexpensive
Disadvantages: health hazard (insects etc.),
damage due to air pollution

Waste Disposal Methods


Recycling
Advantage: key to providing a livable
environment for the future
Disadvantages: expensive, some waste
cannot be recycled, technological push
needed

Waste treatment and disposal


Waste treatment

Incineration
Solidification
Heat treatment:
Chemical treatment

Waste disposal

Moeller, D. W. (2005). Environmental Health (3rd ed.).


Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press

Landfills
Underground injection
wells
Waste piles
land treatment
In less developed
countries flowing rivers

Waste treatments
Incineration:
The process of burning a material so that
only ashes remain.
Solidification: solid waste are melted or
evaporated to produce a sand like
residue.

Waste treatments
Heat treatment:
Heat applied at moderate temperature, is
used in treating volatile solvents.

Waste treatments
Chemical treatment:
The application of chemical in the treatment
of corrosive solid.

Waste Disposal
Landfills:
Waste is placed into or onto the land in
disposal facilities.

Waste Disposal
Underground injection wells:
Waste are injected under pressure into a
steel and concrete-encased shafts placed
deep in the earth.

Waste Disposal
Waste piles:
The accumulations of insoluble solid, non
flowing hazard waste. Piles serves as
temporary or final disposal.

Waste Disposal
Land treatment:
A process in which solid waste, such as
sludge from wastes is applied onto or
incorporated into the soil surface.
Waste are disposed in flowing rivers in less
developed countries.
Moeller, D. W. (2005). Environmental Health (3rd ed.). Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press

Causal of increase in solid waste

Population growth
Increase in industrials manufacturing
Urbanization
Modernization

Continued
Modernization, technological advancement
and increase in global population created
rising in demand for food and other
essentials. This has resulted to rise in the
amount of waste being generated daily by
each household.

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89

Landfill site and Incineration


site

Groups at risks due to solid waste


Populations in areas where there is no
proper waste treatment method.
Children
Waste workers
Populations living close to waste dump
Animals

SOURCES OF HUMAN
EXPOSURES
Ingestion of contaminated water or food
Contact with disease vectors
Inhalation
Dermal

Points of contact
Soil adsorption, storage and biodegrading
Plant uptake
Ventilation
Runoff
Leaching
Insects, birds, rats, flies and animals

Continued
Direct dumping of untreated waste in seas,
rivers and lakes results in the plants and
animals that feed on it

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Impacts of solid waste on health


Chemical poisoning through chemical
inhalation
Uncollected waste can obstruct the storm
water runoff resulting in flood
Low birth weight
Cancer
Congenital malformations
Neurological disease

Impacts of solid waste on health


Nausea and vomiting
Increase in hospitalization of diabetic
residents living near hazard waste sites.
Mercury toxicity from eating fish with high
levels of mercury.

Solid Waste on Animals and


Aquatics life
Increase in mercury level in fish due to
disposal of mercury in the rivers.
Plastic found in oceans ingested by birds
Resulted in high algal population in rivers
and sea.
Degrades water and soil quality

Impacts of solid waste on


Environment.
Waste breaks down in landfills to form
methane, a potent greenhouse gas
Change in climate and destruction of ozone
layer due to waste biodegradable
Littering, due to waste pollutions, illegal
dumping

PREVENTIVE
MEASURES
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Continued
Proper management of solid waste
Involving public in plans for waste treatment
and disposal
Provide the public accurate, useful
information about the whole projects,
including the risks and maintain formal
communication with public

Continued
Educate people on different ways of
handling waste.
Waste Minimization is a process of reducing
waste
produce
by
individuals,
communities and companies, which
reduces the impact of chemical wastes on
the environment to the greatest extent.

Continued
Household level of proper segregation of
waste, recycling and reuse.
Process and product substitution e.g. use
paper bag instead of plastic bags.

Moeller,2005

Wastewater Treatment
and Disposal

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Objectives
Identify kinds and sources of wastewater
Describe hazards in wastewater
Describe ways of treating wastewater
Describe the products of wastewater
treatment, including the production and
use of biosolids
Explain important biological, chemical, and
biogeochemical processes in wastewater
treatment

Wastewater
Wastewater is used water that discharged
from residences and from commercial,
institutions, and similar facilities which
contains dissolved or suspended matter

Kinds of wastewater
Spent water is water that has been used
and can no longer serve the purpose for
which it was used because of
contamination

Kinds of wastewater
Domestic wastewater is the wastewater
produced by humans in their daily lives
(gray water is the water produced by
bathing, cooking, and washing dishes and
clothes, gray water may be high in
detergent pollutants)

Kinds of wastewater
Sewage is the wastewater produced by
residential and commercial sources, it is
the water that is discharged into sanitary
sewers or treated in septic systems
(sanitary sewers are systems of pipes or
conduits that carry off sewage)

Sources of Wastewater
Homes and business
Manufacturing wastewater
Food

plants
Paper mills
Steel mills
Electric power plants

Sources of Wastewater
Farm wastewater
Storm water (storm sewer is a system of
pipes that carries runoff from street,
buildings, and other surface areas)

Hazards in Wastewater
Hazardous wastewater is wastewater that is
potentially dangerous to human health or
the environment

Infectious Agents
A waste water infectious agent is any
organism that can cause disease in
humans and other living organisms which
include Bacteria (fecal coli form bacteria
are the bacteria found in the intestines
(colon) of mammals), Viruses (hepatitis,
meningitis, diarrhea, and respiratory
disease), Protozoa (amoebic dysentery,
diarrhea, and ulcers), Worms (tapeworm,
roundworms, and whipworms)

Examples of protozoa often found


in wastewater

Life cycle of the roundworm (Ascaris


lumbricoides) a human parasite

Toxic Waste Substances


Toxic waste is any material capable of
causing injury to humans and other
organisms that enter the body by
inhalation, swallowing, or being absorbed
through the skin that include Pesticides,
detergents, bleach, and heavy metal
residues.

Organic Matter
Most organic matter in domestic wastewater
is easily biodegraded
The main constituents are undigested food,
raw food fragments, uneaten cooked food,
and paper
Organic materials provide a good place for
the growth of infectious agents

Temperature
The water is warmed and becomes thermal
effluent
Thermal wastewater has several important
uses, such as growing of fish

Objectives of Wastewater
Treatment
Remove or destroy pathogenic organisms
and parasites
Reduce or remove nutrients to lower
pollution of groundwater or surface after
treatment
Remove or reduce toxic and organic
materials in wastewater

Treatment Systems
Individual home system
Commercial system
Municipal wastewater treatment system
Urban

area
Big city

Individual home systems


A septic tank is a concrete or steel container
buried in the ground
The tank serves as a digester where
bacteria act on the solid materials
The solids settle to the bottom of the tank
The liquid passes from the tank into a
system of underground pipes that from a
leaching field

Individual home systems


The pipes have small holes that allow the
liquid to diffuse into the soil
Leaching fields should be at least 50 feet
from a stream and twice that distance
from a water well
Tanks and leaching fields should not be
located closer than 5 feet to a property
boundary

Individual home systems


Septic tanks are cleaned by pumping out
the sludge, this is done when the scum
and sludge at the bottom of the tank are
closer than 30 cm to the top
Most tanks need to pumped every 2 or 3
years

Commercial Systems
Factories and farms often have system to
treat wastewater from manufacturing and
animal production
A lagoon is a type of pond where sunlight,
bacterial action, and oxygen purify
wastewater (stabilization pond)
Aeration is sometimes used to speed
bacterial action

Tank used to hold and treat wastes from a


modern hog farm production facility

Municipal Wastewater Treatment


Systems
Municipal wastewater treatment systems are
designed to serve the needs of towns and
cities that include the following steps in
treatment: Collection, Preliminary
treatment, Primary treatment, Secondary
treatment, Advanced treatment and
Disposal of residue

General design of a municipal


wastewater treatment system

Sludge
Sludge is the semi-solid material formed
during wastewater treatment
A sludge digester is a large tank in which the
settled wastes from wastewater are
converted to solids and gases by
microorganism (methane)

Sludge
Biosolids are the dried remains of
wastewater treatment, they have nutrients
needed by plants and are used as organic
fertilizer

Liquid sludge from a hog farm is spread on


crop land to increase fertility of the soil

Biosolids piled at a sewage


treatment plant

Effluent
Effluent is the water that flows from a
treatment facility or factory into a stream,
lake, or ocean
It is wastewater that has usually been
treated to prepare it for release

Effluent

Process in Wastewater Treatment


Biological processes
Chemical processes
Biogeochemical processes

Biological Processes
Bacteria
Anaerobic

bacteria (very slow digesters)


Aerobic bacteria (septic tank has very little or
no free oxygen, a major product is methane)
Clostridium sp. act sugars, amino acids, and
fatty acids to form organic acids, such as
acetate, CO2, and H2

Biological Processes
Nitrosomonas

and Nitrobacter bacteria


convert ammonia to nitrate, which is helpful in
removing excrement from water

Protozoa help decompose wastes and feed


on bacteria
Rotifers feed on bacteria

Chemical Processes
Chlorine and ozone are sometimes used to
oxidize small amounts of organic materials
Chemical can also be used to help remove
toxic metals from wastewater
Chemicals, if used improperly, can kill the
bacteria that are useful in biodegradation

Biogeochemical Processes
Biogeochemical processes are the
processes in wastewater treatment that
transfer nutrients from living organisms to
physical forms and back to living
organisms
Three important biogeochemical processes
in wastewater treatment are the nitrogen,
phosphorus, and sulfur cycle

Nitrogen Cycle
Ammonification-Nitrogen is protein, such as
in animal cells, tissues, feces, urine, and
other materials is converted into
ammonium form (NH3 or NH4), these
forms are poisonous and can kill the fish
in water if the concentration gets high
Bacterial nitrification-Bacteria convert the
ammonium forms to nitrite (N02)

Nitrogen Cycle
Oxidation-Nitrite is converted by bacterial
action into nitrate form (N03)
Assimilation-The nitrate form is used by
plants in growing, some may denitrify and
enter the atmosphere

Nitrogen Cycle
Plant consumption by animals-Plants that
used nitrate to grow are eaten by animals,
the animals produce feces and urine and
later die, leaving protein to again go
through the nitrogen cycle

Phosphorus Cycle
Phosphorus levels are usually 10 to 20 mg/l
in wastewater
Excessive phosphorus will at first cause
heavy algae bloom; when it dies off,
oxygen depletion is a problem
Eutrophication, a deficiency in oxygen,
occurs when the water has a nutrient level
that is too high

Phosphorus Cycle
Organic phosphorus compounds include
phosphates, nucleic acids, and phytin
Various chemical compounds, such as ferric
chloride, react with phosphorus to remove
it from the water

Sulfur Cycle
Wastewater sources of sulfur are feces and traces
in natural water supplies
Bacteria decompose feces, urine, and animal
proteins into sulfides and sulfites
Other bacteria convert the sulfites into sulfates,
which are used by plants
Some of the sulfur is released from the water in
sulfate form creating the rotten-egg odor
Sulfur levels in stormwater are due to acid rain and
air pollution

Sulfur Cycle
Some of the sulfur is released from the
water in sulfate form creating the rottenegg odor
Sulfur levels in stormwater are due to acid
rain and air pollution

Tests
What

are the major sources of wastewater?


What hazards may be in wastewater?
What are the objectives of wastewater
treatment?
What is a septic tank? How does it work?
What is lagoon? How is water treated in a
lagoon?
What are the steps in a municipal wastewater
treatment facility?
What are the three major biogeochemical cycles
in wastewater?

DEFORESTATION

A Serious and Daunting Problem

INTRODUCTION
FORESTS:
Generally saying FORESTS are large areas
covered thickly with plants and trees..
Tropical forests occupy 10.4 percent of the
worlds land.
Worlds forests contain majority of the worlds
biodiversity resources
Philippine forests have high floral and faunal
diversity

Forest
Forests in the tropics have a rich biodiversity.
More than half of all the plants and animals in
the world are to be found in the rainforests.
More than 3500 species of plants and animals.
The constantly high temperatures and the
continuously high humidity in the tropics make
this biodiversity possible.
The temperature in most tropical rainforests is
between 25 and 35 degrees Celsius.

IMPORTANCE OF FORESTS
Provide raw materials to Industry.
Provide food, fodder, fuel, fertilizer and fiber.
Prevent soil erosion and preserve the fertility of
the soil.
Provide moisture and lower the temperature.
Home for many animals and birds, thus , they
preserve the biodiversity.
Maintain the ecological balance.

THREATS
Unfortunately, the forests are threatened.
Worldwide only 20 percent of the original
tropical forests is left.
The main reasons are the commercial
logging and the cutting of trees by local
people, who need plots for agriculture
activities.

THREATS
Less than 100 years ago this was still 70 %!
The deforestation has to be stopped to save
the biodiversity and the productivity of the
forest as a natural resource.
If not, there will be no rainforest left within
15 years.

DEFORESTATION
Deforestation is a complete change in land use
from forest to agriculture - including shifting
cultivation and pasture - or urban use.
It does not include forest that has been logged
and left to regrow, even if it was clear cut.
Deforestation of rainforests is the result of
several forces - all intricately interwoven.
There is no quick fix for the problem of
tropical deforestation.

DEFORESTATION
About 5 0 % of the worlds animal species
live in the rain forests. Some of these
species require such specialized habitats
that they are not able to exist outside this
environment.
Scientists estimate that 100 square miles of
rain forest are destroyed everyday.
As forested land is cleared, certain species
have become endangered or even extinct.

Main Causes of Tropical


Forest Degradation
Cattle Ranching 8.3%

Infrastructure 1.0%
Fuelwood
7.9%
Permanent Agriculture
16.8%

Subsistence
Farming 60.4%

Forestry 5.6%

Source: Murra, 1983; FAO, 1987

Agents of Tropical Forest


Destruction
Development/Infrastructure 5%

Fuelwood 20%

Slash and Burn


Agriculture 45%

Settlement/Permanent
Agriculture 15%
Industrial Logging
15%

Source: U.S. Forest Service, 1992

TYPES OF FORESTS IN THE


PHILIPPINES
Forest vegetation types in the Philippines:
closed

canopy
open canopy
mossy forest
pine forest

Four layers of the rain forest.


THE

THE

EMERGENT
LAYER

UNDERSTORY

THE
THE

CANOPY

FOREST
FLOOR

The Emergent Layer


The

top
layer of the
rain forest..

The Canopy

The canopy is the


second layer from
the top. Monkeys,
apes, and exotic
plants such as
orchids live here.
The canopy is like
living under a big
green umbrella. The
umbrella helps to
protect the animals
from the heat and
rain.

The Under-story
The

next layer
down is called the
under-story. Small
trees, bushes, and
plants grow at
this layer. It is
the home of bats,
frogs, butterflies,
and many other
animals.

The Forest Floor

The final stop is


the forest floor.
Leaf-cutter ants,
Python snakes,
and fungi are a
few of the species
that live there. It is
dark on the forest
floor because the
trees keep most of
the light out.

Creatures in the rain forest.


400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0

amphibians
birds
butterflies
reptiles
mammals

species living in rain forest

Some of the Rain Forest Animals

The Poison Frogs


There are 60
species of
amphibians
live in the
rain forests.

The Toucan
There are 400
species of
birds living in
the rain
forests.

The Blue Morpho


Butterfly
There are
150 species
of butterflies
in the rain
forests.

The Emerald Tree Boa

There are 100 species of reptiles in the rain


forests.

The Three-toed Sloth


There

are 125
species of
mammals
living in the
rain forest.

The Leaf-cutter Ant


There

are
40,000
species of
insects in the
rain forests.

EFFECTS OF
DEFORESTATION IN THE
PHILIPPINES

Dr. Catalino N.Mendoza

174

Effects
Rainforest clearance leads to major changes
in the ecosystem as the state of dynamic
equilibrium is upset as a result of changes
to inputs and outputs into the system.
Impacts are felt on plants and animals,
water cycle, climate, and landscape

Effects
Not only the typical giant trees will disappear
more and more, also more than 3500
species of plants and animals, many of
them only found in the Philippines, will
disappear, for always.

Dr. Catalino N.Mendoza

176

Effects

Some of the threatened animals are:


the tarsier, the smallest monkey in the
world
the large Philippine Eagle
the Philippine cockatoo
flying lemurs
flower peckers
the Philippine crocodile
Dr. Catalino N.Mendoza

177

Effects on the
Ecosystem

Dr. Catalino N.Mendoza

178

Effects
Greater possibility of pests and disease as
monoculture provides a uniform source of
food, and herbivores can easily adapt to
this
Vital stores of nutrients are lost as
decomposers that release and fix nitrogen
in the soil are removed

Effects
Up to 99% of all nutrients are stored in plant
material; their removal quickly diminishes
rainforest fertility
Less interception of rainfall increases sheet
and gully erosion
Silting of lakes and rivers occurs

Dr. Catalino N.Mendoza

180

Effects
Disruption of traditional ways of life
Loss of diverse flora and fauna
Contribution to global warming
Decrease in productivity of ecosystem

Dr. Catalino N.Mendoza

181

1985

1992

TROPICAL RAIN FOREST DESTRUCTION


Southern Amazon River Basin, Rondnia, Brazil
Photos provide a visual indication of the rate of deforestation
occurring. The amount of clear-cut area now exceeds the area
of remaining rain forest timber stands.

42

2001

1983

Betsiboka River Delta, Bombetoka


Bay, Madagascar
Removal of native forest,
massive soil losses, rapid 43

1985

1992
2002

Aral Sea, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan (top to north)


(~46% water level decrease since 1960; level continues to fall)
Development of agricultural irrigation projects impedes
recharge. With reduced fresh water quantities and constant
evaporation, the sea has become more saline and shrunk
drastically. It has also become polluted with pesticides and 46

ROOT CAUSE
OF
DEFORESTATION
Dr. Catalino N.Mendoza

185

Causes

Large scale cutting of trees for different


purposes like Industries.
Over grazing by cattle.
Irrigation and power projects.
Explosive population growth
Unemployment

Causes

Poverty
Shifting and permanent agriculture
Cattle ranching
Needs for fuel wood
Needs for timber
Mineral extraction
Tourism

Dr. Catalino N.Mendoza

187

OVERPOPULATION
The

number one underlying cause of


tropical deforestation is population growth.

NATURAL CAUSES OF
DEFORESTATION
Forest

fire

Floods
drought

Locations of rain forests:


There are rain forests in Mexico,
Central America, South America,
Africa, Malaysia, the Philippines,
southeastern Asia, Australia, and
Papua New Guinea.

Continued
The South American rain forest makes
up about half of the rain forests on
Earth. This rain forest cover the
countries of Brazil, Peru, Bolivia,
Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, and
Guyana.

Dr. Catalino N.Mendoza

191

THE PHILIPPINE FORESTRY

Dr. Catalino N.Mendoza

192

Dipterocarps:
Ecologically and economically the most important trees in Southeast
Asia
Shorea contorta Vid. (white lauan) is one of the most important
dipterocarp species because of its economic value and fast growth
The once spectacular primary forests are now a relic of a bygone era.
What little primary forest does remain exists on the island of Palawan,
the last sanctuary for the Palawan eagle.
Between 1990 and 2005 the Philippines lost a third of its forest cover.
While the current deforestation rate is around 2 percent per year, this
represents a 20 percent drop from the rate of the 1990s.

Widespread

logging was responsible for much


of the historical forest loss in the Philippines.
Despite government bans on timber harvesting
following severe flooding in the late 1980s and
early 1990s, illegal logging continues today.
Illicit wood cut from secondary and primary
forests is routinely smuggled to other Asian
countries.

After

temporarily lifting the log export ban in the late


1990s, the government has increasingly tried to crack
down on timber smuggling and forest degradation, but
with limited success.
Additional threats to Philippine forests come from legal
and illegal mining operationswhich also cause
pollution agricultural fires, collection of fuelwood,
and rural population expansion.
In recent years, deforestation has been increasingly
blamed for soil erosion, river siltation, flooding, and
drought; environmental awareness is now rising in the
country.
Activists are quick to criticize government decisions
that adversely affect the country's environment.

With less and less forest in the Philippines, locals are


increasingly reliant on plantations to meet their timber
needs.
As a result, plantation cover has fallen 65 percent
between 1990 and 2005.
The continuing disappearance of Filipino wildlands is
of great to concern to ecologists due to the high levels
of endemic species.
Of the 1,196 known species of amphibians, birds,
mammals and reptiles in the country, nearly 46
percent are endemic. Among plants, the number is
around 40 percent.
Only about 5 percent of the Philippines land area is
under some form of protection.

ECOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF
TROPICAL RAINFOREST

Habitat for flora and fauna


Important role in normal in
weather patterns
Prevents rapid soil erosion
and water pollution
important products, like
medicines
preserve cultures of
indigenous forest people

MANAGEMENT OF FOREST
RESOURCES

Simply designating tropical forests as parks


or preserves, without addressing underlying
causes of deforestation, is unlikely to be
effective in halting forest destruction.
Solutions need to involve the very people
who destroy the forest. They need to be
given alternatives, they need to be part of
the process of developing alternatives . . .
Dr. Dietmar Rose

Management towards sustainable


development

There are a variety of


approaches, some of which are
more appropriate than others.
Increasingly the move has
been towards sustainable
approaches, where the use of
resources is less than the
ability of an ecosystem to
replace itself, thus meaning
that a state of dynamic
equilibrium is maintained

Approaches to management

Reducing amount of burning to reduce amounts of


fertilizer, and maintain organic matter
Stop monoculture, and encourage planting of a variety of
crops, reducing nutrient depletion
Limiting use of large machinery, which encourages soil
compaction
Limit large scale grazing, again to reduce effects of soil
compaction
Control of pH value of soil to limit high levels of acidity
Limit the area that is being developed
Production of sustainable crops and products such as, fruit
trees, rubber, brazil nuts, wax and honey, ecotourism.

ISSUES ON PHILIPPINE
DEFORESTATION
The inequitable
distribution of agricultural land
is one of the primary forces pushing landless
migrants into the forest - where their slash and
burn clearing for subsistence agriculture is now
a leading cause of deforestation worldwide.
Many governments consider their forest land
under-developed and will grant title to forest
land to those who will improve it, by clearing it
for pasture or plantation agriculture, for
example.

OTHER ISSUES CONCERNING


DEFORESTATION
There are many laws and polices governing the use and conservation of
forest resources in the Philippines

the government has been actively pursuing several initiatives in spite of


its limited resources.
Conservation of remaining forests in NIPAS sites and watershed areas.
Reforestation and rehabilitation of barren upland areas through tree
planting and agroforestry.
Community-based forestry activities such as community organizing and
development.
Multi-stakeholder workshop
Farmers, NGOs, DENR, LGUs

Terrestrial Biomes
An Overview of the Six Major
Terrestrial Biomes

Life on Land

Terrestrial Biomes
Biomes

are distinguished primarily by their


predominant plants and are associated with
particular climates.
Geographic

and seasonal variations in


temperature and precipitation are fundamental
components.
Predominant plants share similar growth
characteristics although species may vary.
Soil types of a biome are often similar due to
similar climate and plant type influences.

Uneven Solar Heating of Earth

Solar-Driven Air Circulation


(convection)

Temperature, Atmospheric
Circulation, and Precipitation
Spherical

shape and tilt of earths axis


cause uneven heating of earths surface.
Drives

air circulation patterns and


consequently precipitation patterns.
Warm,

moist air rises.


Cools, condenses, and falls as rain.
Cooler, dry air falls back to surface.
Rainforests

found near equator.


Major deserts found near 30o N / S.

Solar-Driven Air Circulation

Temperature, Atmospheric
Circulation, and Precipitation
Coriolis

effect causes apparent deflection


of winds clockwise in the N hemisphere
and counterclockwise in the S
hemisphere.

Seasons due to tilt of the Earth and its


annual orbit around the Sun.
Wintersolstice
Dec22nd

Vernalequinox
Mar22nd

Summersolstice
June22nd

Autumnequinox
Sept22nd

Climate
Diagrams

Mean annual
temperature.

Mean annual
precipitation.

Soil : Foundation of Terrestrial


Biomes
Soil

is a complex mixture of living and


non-living material.
Development of soil:
Weathering

(fracture and dissolution) of


parent rocks and other minerals portions.
Organic matter deposition by roots and litter
(leaves, twigs, logs).
Infiltration of water leaches material to deeper
layers (horizons) in the soil profile.
Climate influences weathering processes.

Soil Horizons
O

horizon: Organic Layer freshly fallen


and decomposing organic material
the most obvious surface layer
(humifications begins).
A horizon: Mixture of minerals, clay, silt,
sand, mixed with humus (older dark
organic matter what makes dirt
brown).

horizon: Clay, humus, and other


materials leached from A horizon - often
contains plant roots.
C horizon: Weathered parent material.

Soil Profile

Terrestrial Biomes
Biomes

are distinguished primarily by their


predominant plants and are associated with
particular climates.
Tropical Rainforests
Tropical Dry Forest
Tropical Savanna
Desert

Mediterranean

Woodland and Shrubland


Temperate Grassland
Temperate Forest (Deciduous & Evergreen)
Boreal Forest (Tiaga)
Tundra

Biome:
Large

complexes of communities
characterized by a distinctive vegetation
type and climate.

GRASSLAND
Temperate grasslands are
similar to tropical savanna, but
are found in regions with relatively
cold winter temperatures.

Continued
This biome remains grassland, and is
not taken over by woody shrubs and
trees, because of seasonal drought,
occasional fires, and grazing by large
mammals. The soil of grassland is the
deepest and most fertile in the world.

Deciduous Forest
warm
cool

summers

winters

yearly

precipitation: 75-250cm

deciduous

year

trees lose their leaves every

Inhabitants
Deer
raccoons
bears
oaks
maples
hickories
various

species of small birds

Location:
Europe
North-eastern
Eastern

United States

Canada

TAIGA
Taiga, also known as coniferous or
boreal forest, is the largest terrestrial
biome on earth. The soil is thin,
nutrient poor and acidic. There is
usually only one or a few species in a
stand in a particular area.

Continued
These include different species of
spruce, pine, or fir, and often there is
little undergrowth present. There may
also occasionally be deciduous
species present, such as oak, birch,
willow, or alder, in a particularly wet or
disturbed area.

Continued
Animal populations are mainly
seed-eating squirrels and jays,
herbivores such as leaf eating
insects and larger browsing
animals such as deer, moose, elk,
snowshoe hare, and beavers.

Continued
The typical predators for this area
are grizzly bears, wolves, lynxes
and wolverines. Many have thick
coats of fur to insulate against the
cold, and some hibernate.

Coniferous Forests
Short
cold

growing season

winters

yearly

precipitation: 20-60cm

primary

source of the worlds lumber

Inhabitants:
Elk
Moose
Rabbits
Needle-leaves

evergreens

Location:
Northern

Asia

Northern

North America

Tropical Forest
Tropical forests are warm, moist tropical
lowlands found within 23.5 latitude of the
equator, having both a high temperature
and rainfall. There is a predictable daily
cycle of cloud buildup and rain.

The soils are highly weathered, reddish in


colour, and contain large amounts of
Aluminum and Iron. Rapid decomposition
occurs, and nutrients are cycled quickly,
stored mostly in the plant biomass.

The tropical rain forest has the


greatest diversity of species of all
communities, perhaps as many as all
other terrestrial biomes combined.

The vegetation in tropical rain forests is divided


into five general layers: the trees that emerge
above the canopy, the high upper canopy or
topmost continuous layer of foliage, the lowtree stratum, the shrub understory, and a
ground layer of herbaceous plants and ferns.

This great plant diversity also allows a great


animal diversity. These include monkeys,
sloths, parrots, bats, frogs, and a wide variety
of insects.

Tropical forests are threatened by logging,


and clearing for grazing and agriculture.
Millions of hectares of tropical forests are
being destroyed at an alarming rate - more
than one half of earths tropical rain forest
is already gone, and it is likely these
communities may disappear entirely by the
end of the decade. This loss means the
loss of the biological diversity of the forests

Typical Rainforest

Rain Forest
climate

is hot and wet


little temperature variation
abundant moisture
yearly precipitation: 250cm
contains more species than any other
biome
forests and their species are being
destroyed at an alarming rate

Inhabitants:
Many

tall trees
variety of insects
jaguars
armadillos
snakes
birds
monkeys

Location:
Tropical

regions of South America


Central America
Asia
Africa
Australia

DESERTS
Deserts are found at latitudinal
positions between 15o to 35 North and
South of the equator, and also in
rainshadows. They are the driest of all
biomes. The evaporation exceeds
rainfall, making it very dry, with less
than 30cm of rain per year.

Continued
Most deserts are very hot, but cold deserts
also exist. The hot deserts generally
experience hot days and cold nights. Hot
deserts can be found in the southwest of
the United States, along the coast of South
America, in northern Africa, and in the
Middle East. There are cold deserts to the
west of the Rocky Mountains, in eastern
Argentina and throughout central Asia.

Continued
The driest deserts receive too little
rainfall to support any perennial
vegetation. In less arid regions, the plant
life includes some grasses, shrubs, cacti,
creosote, and rosette plants. These plants
have numerous adaptations to life in the
desert, including:

Continued
These plants have numerous adaptations to life in
the desert, including:
deep or spreading roots
losing leaves (eg. prickly pear, ocotillo)
thorns
poisons
annual habit - seeds
plants exchange CO2 at night
Periods of rainfall are marked by sudden and
spectacular blooms of plants.

Continued
Seed eating animals are common
in deserts, such as ants, birds and
rodents. The mammals are mostly
nocturnal, or they may be active only
during the cooler months of the year.
Reptiles and snakes also live here,
and are important predators of the
seed eaters.

Continued
As is the case with desert plants, desert
animals are well adapted to the harsh
conditions. For example, some mice never
drink, instead, they obtain all their water from
the breakdown of the seeds they eat.
Desertification, the spread of deserts, is a
major issue in certain areas of the world.

Deserts
dry
sparse

vegetation
scattered grasses
yearly precipitation: 20cm
inhabitants must conserve water

Inhabitants:
Kangaroo

rats

Camels
cactus:

have spines; deep roots; and a


waxy covering to prevent water loss

Location:
Parts

of Africa

Asia
Australia
North

America

Savanna
Savannas are areas in dry tropics and
subtropics in which grasses are
conspicuous (noticeable), with scattered
individual trees. There are three
seasons in these areas: cool and dry, hot
and dry, and warm and wet.

The soils of the savanna are usually low in


nutrients. The soils are porous, having only
a thin layer of nutrient rich matter called
humus.

Plant life is composed of low


growing grasses with scattered
deciduous(falling off at maturity)
trees
and
thorny
shrubs,
Acacias,
Eucalypts
and
Baobab. There are frequent
fires in the savanna.

The dominant vegetation is fire adapted, but


many seedlings are killed before they
become established, by fire or by grazing
animals. The fires also remove dead plant
material and recycle nutrients that support
new growth

Animals found here include large


herbivores such as giraffes, zebras,
antelopes, buffalo, kangaroos,
wildebeests, and ostriches. There are
also many burrowing animals found
here, including mice, gophers, snakes,
as well as ants and termites.

Animals in the savanna are most visible


during the rainy season. During the dry
season, many small animals are dormant,
and larger mammals often migrate to
other areas.

Savannas
Open
widely

spaced trees
seasonal rainfall
yearly precipitation: 90-150cm
conversion to agriculture threatens
inhabitants

Inhabitants:
Lions
Rhinoceroses
Elephants
Giraffes
Gazelles
Rabbits
Grasses

Location:
Parts

of Africa

South

America

Australia

TUNDRA
Tundra is a polar desert, with low
rainfall and precipitation. There are
two main types, arctic tundra and
alpine tundra. The northernmost
limits of plant growth occur in the
arctic tundra, limited to shrubby or
matlike vegetation.

Continued
The winters are long and cold, and
there is a short growing season, of
less than 60 days. There is an
annual 0 to 24 hour change in day
length - there is constant darkness in
the winter, and constant sunlight
during the summer.

Continued
Plant life consists of low
shrubs,
sedges,
grasses,
mosses and lichens, with
special adaptations. Because
of the very low temperatures
they are slow to recover from
disturbances..

Continued
Plant growth and reproduction
occur in a very short period of
time during the brief summer.
There is a low diversity of
animals in the tundra. Blackflies,
deerflies and mosquitoes are
abundant during the short
summer.

Tundra
Open
wind-swept
dry
ground

is always frozen
yearly precipitation: 25cm
covers one-fifth of the Earths land surface

Inhabitants:
Caribou
Lemmings
Wolves
Mountain

lions

Foxes
Mosses

and lichens

Location:

Far

Northern Asia

Northern

North America

Major Terrestrial Biomes


Deciduous

Forest
Coniferous Forest
Rain Forest
Desert
Savannas
Tundra

EMS
Environmental
Management System
Dr. Catalino N.Mendoza

275

ISO 14001

Environmental Management Systems (EMS)


are a potential useful instrument for
companies to reduce the environmental
impacts of their operations and to gain
competitiveness

ISO 14001 was first published in 1996 and


specifies the actual requirements for an
environmental management system. It applies
to those environmental aspects which the
organization has control and over which it can
be expected to have an influence.

ISO 14001 - The international standard that


specifies a process for controlling and
improving an organization's environmental

What Is an Environmental
Management System

An EMS is simply a set of procedures to reduce our


environmental footprint in our day-to-day activities.
An EMS is the combination of people, policies,
procedures, review, and plans to help address
environmental issues.
An EMS is that part of an overall management
system which includes organizational structure,
planning activities, responsibilities, practices,
procedures, processes, and resources for...achieving
environmental policy.
Important EMS elements include continual
improvement, management commitment,
formalization, and awareness of a systems based
approach

What is an Environmental
Management System (EMS)?

A tool to manage environmental aspects of a


companys operations

Based on guidelines that a company can


adhere to on a voluntary basis, in order to
control its environmental impacts on the basis
of self-determined environmental policy and
objectives
ISO 14001 has been developed as an
international standard to avoid the
proliferation of different EMS standards

Benefits of an EMS
Helps

maintain compliance
Reduce operating costs
Integrate environmental programs into
mission
Increase employee involvement
Reduce environmental impacts

A Basic EMS Framework


Plan, Do, Check, Act
PLAN

DO

ACT

CHECK

The Continuous Cycle

Plan
Planning, identifying environmental aspects and
establishing goals

Do
Implementing, includes training and operational
controls

Check
Checking, includes monitoring and corrective
action

Act
Reviewing, includes progress reviews and acting
to make needed changes

ISO 14000 series of international


standards
for environmental management
Environmental
management systems
systems
ISO

14001

Specification with guidance for

use
ISO 14004

General guidelines on principles,


systems and supporting
techniques

Guidelines for environmental auditing


ISO

14010 General principles


ISO 14011 Audit procedures - Auditing of
environmental management systems
ISO 14012 Qualification criteria for

Core Elements

Five core elements should be


implemented:
an environmental policy
environmental planning
implementation and operation
regular checking and corrective action
a management review

Environmental policy
Statement

by the organization of its


intentions and principles in relation to
its overall environmental performance.
The environmental policy must commit
the organization to
regulatory compliance
pollution prevention
continual improvement
It must also be appropriate to the
nature and scale of the organizations
operations

Why do companies want to use


EMS/ISO 14001?

Environmental

performance
Economic benefits
Trade considerations
Corporate image

Environmentally

sensitive industries
(e.g. chemicals) seeking to improve
their environmental image
Export-oriented industries (e.g.
electronics) preparing to deal with
potential trade barriers
Large firms committed to maintaining
high environmental standards and
meeting shareholders expectations

To what extent does ISO 14001


contribute to environmental
improvement at the company
level?
The

ISO 14001 standard does not state


specific environmental performance
criteria

An

effective EMS assists an company in


formulating an environmental policy and
setting corresponding objectives, taking
into account legislative requirements
and information about significant

What is the role of ISO 14001 in


environmental policy making?

Complementarity between voluntary standards


on EMS and regulatory measures

Potential to improve regulatory compliance


ISO 14001 has been criticised by some NGOs:

compliance
measurable

improvement in environmental
performance
third party verification of the audit
public reporting
public participation

What are the costs and


benefits of using EMS
and ISO 14001?

Costs of implementing EMS and


ISO 14001 certification
The

costs of installing an EMS or


upgrading an existing management
system to the requirements of ISO
14001
e.g. setting up and maintaining an
EMS, hiring consultants, meeting
company-determined performance
goals
The costs of certification of the EMS
against the ISO 14001 standard

Costs of implementing EMS

costs of installing an EMS vary


considerably from case to case,
depending on:
The

initial conditions within an


organization

Conditions

external to the
organization

How could ISO 14001


affect trade?

Trade implications of ISO 14001

Presence

in the market place

Market

pressure

Market

opportunities

Can

ISO 14001 be a barrier to trade?

Presence in the market place

ISO 14001 certification is growing quickly

There is also considerable interest in


developing countries

Many companies appear to have adopted a


wait and see attitude, in particular with
regard to certification

Market pressure
Supplier

requirements

Although

some large companies encourage


their suppliers to certify against ISO
14001, there is scant evidence that ISO
certification will become a supplier
condition

Suppliers

and subcontractors may prefer to


seek ISO 14001 certification to avoid plant
visits or complex questionnaires

Public

procurement

TrainforTrade: Trade, Environment and Development

Market opportunities
Seeking

ISO 14001 certification in the


expectation that certification by itself
may be a ticket to market access and
increased market shares is not
necessarily a good idea

Do

what extent ISO 14001 certification


will assist developing country
companies to strengthen market
positions, even if customers do not
require certification, is difficult to

Can ISO 14001 constitute a barrier


to trade?
Despite

being voluntary nature, ISO


14001 certification may become a de
facto condition for doing business, at
least in certain sectors
This may then result in a de facto
barrier to trade if companies have
difficulties in obtaining certification
Associated costs?
Do small and medium-sized
enterprises (SMEs) face particular
difficulties?

Do SMEs have similar


chances as large
companies to obtain
ISO 14001 certification?

Small and Medium Sized


Enterprises (SMEs)
SMEs

EMS

Lack

may face specific problems with

of financial resources and qualified


personnel
Difficult access to information
Resistance to change
Costs of setting up the system and
certification
Few SMEs have an environmental policy in
place
Identification of environmental legislation
Identification of environmental impacts of
activities

SMEs and ISO 14001

[2]

In the short run, the implementation of EMS


will depend largely on demands by large
organisations, e.g. TNC subsidiaries imposing
requirements on local suppliers

Large organisations, however, can also assist


SMEs in complying with the requirements of
ISO 14001

In addition, cooperation among SMEs may


assist in resolving certain problems and in
reducing costs. For example SMEs in specific
sectors and geographical areas could
cooperate in identifying the environmental
aspects and impacts of their activities and
information on legal requirements.

How can governments in


developing countries
promote the effective use
of EMS?

TrainforTrade: Trade, Environment and Development

Promoting the implementation of


EMS
UNCTAD Expert Meeting recommended:
Awareness

raising among stakeholders


Identification of sources and dissemination of
information
Creation of infrastructure, training auditors
and consultants
Access to and transfer of environmentally
sound technology
Assistance in developing and implementing
related legislation
Support for participation in relevant forums
and for sharing experiences with

Pilot schemes

Pilot schemes may be an effective means to


improve understanding of EMS and to gain
practical experience

They provide opportunities for mutual


learning by certification bodies and the
business community

In several developing countries pilot,


schemes were put in place prior to the
official publication of ISO 14001 to prepare
the national certification bodies and industry

To what extent do TNCs use


ISO 14001 and to what
extent do they encourage
their affiliates/or and
suppliers in developing
countries to implement an
EMS?
TrainforTrade: Trade, Environment and Development

Disclaimer

This section examines, by way of example,


the stated policies of some large TNCs
regarding the use of EMS by their
subsidiaries and suppliers in developing
countries, based on a quick examination of
their environmental reports

Clearly, this annex does not result of


empirical analysis and therefore it does not
draw any conclusion on the extent to which
TNCs in general contribute to the wider use
of EMS and their continuous improvement in
developing countries

Rather
it seeks
to Environment
stimulate and
debate
and
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STRATEGIES OF TRANSNATIONAL
CORPORATIONS (TNCs)

Approaches

towards the use of EMS by


subsidiaries in developing countries
Standardization
Differentiation

Approaches

towards suppliers

TrainforTrade: Trade, Environment and Development

Dow Chemical

It

is Dow Chemicals sated policy


that all global operations meet
Dows Environmental
Management Standard or their
countrys laws and regulations,
whichever is more stringent

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Hoechst Marion Roussel

Hoechst

Marion Roussel (HMR)


encourages all production
facilities to develop an
integrated EH&S system
It will be up to the local
management to choose between
EMAS, ISO 14001 certification or
an internal EMS
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SHELL

Shell

has developed a Health, Safety


and Environmental Management
System (HSE-MS)
Each year all Shell companies must
submit a letter confirming the status
and effectiveness of their systems
Shell will make its HSE-MS compatible
with ISO 14001, enabling Shell
companies to seek ISO 14001
certification if they wish
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HENKEL

Henkel developed an integrated, processoriented management system for safety,


health, environment and quality (SHEQ).
According to Henkel, this system covers all
requirements of:
The

Responsible Care initiative

EMAS

ISO

14001

ISO

9001

An important follow-up step is the


development of quantitative SHEQ
performance indicators, as well as their
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group-wide
application
and harmonization

Hoechst Group
According

to the Principles and


Responsibilities, the Group companies
will implement effective EHS
management systems and develop EHS
targets to work towards best practice in
their industry group
Hoechst AG will periodically audit the
EHS management systems of the Group
companies
The operating companies are obliged to
report externally and internally on their
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EHS
performance

ABB (Asea Brown Boveri)

Its

environmental report argues that

the process of certifying companies


to this standard is an important
aspect of technology sharing in ABB
today, particularly for companies in
emerging markets which often have
little experience with international
certification procedures
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Supplier requirements

Anecdotal

evidence suggests that


while most TNCs may not require
there suppliers to be ISO 14001
certified, several TNCs encourage
their suppliers to seek ISO 14001
certification or to apply
environmental management practices
which are similar to their own
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IBM

IBM

has encouraged its suppliers


to align their EMS with the
requirements of ISO 14001 and to
pursue registration under this
international standard.

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Shell

Shell has adopted a number of general business


practices, including on Responsibilities to
business partners: Health, safety, environment
and human rights:

We do not work with suppliers and


contractors who are not able to meet Shell
standards. In more than 100 countries, Shell
companies screen suppliers for their ability to
meet HSE standards and the human rights of
their employees.

In 1997, at least 95 contracts were canceled


because contractors failed to adhere to our
specified
standards
on HSE,and
or Development
employee
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ABB
ABBs

Environmental Report, in a section


on supply management, states that:
An increasing number of companies and other
organizations are now requiring their suppliers
to have ISO 14001 in place. This requirement
will, of course, accelerate the implementation
of ISO 14001 on a large scale

Environmental performance is included within


the formal process used to qualify suppliers;
within our computer-based cost evaluation
models; and in our training for supply
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Issues for discussion

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Conclusions

Environmental management systems (EMS)


are a potentially useful tool to assist
companies in identifying and reducing the
environmental impact of their operations as
well as in achieving economic benefits

Certification against the ISO 14001 may help


companies to improve corporate image, gain
customer recognition, increase export
competitiveness and strengthen market
positions

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Conclusions
Would you agree with the following
common
places:

The Use of ISO 14001 is increasing rapidly?

The use is heavily concentrated in particular


sectors, such as electronics and chemicals?

Other important sectors, in particular for


developing countries, are forestry and
mining?

In most sectors ISO 14001 certification is of


relatively little importance in the market
TrainforTrade: Trade, Environment and Development

Recommendations

[1]

Do you agree with the following


recommendations?

Pro-active approach towards ISO 14001

Companies should seek to implement EMS/ISO


14001 for good reasons:
reduce

the environmental impact of their


operations

obtain

economic benefits

EMS/ISO 14001 should not be implemented for


the wrong reason, such as unjustified fear to
lose business operations if certification cannot
TrainforTrade: Trade, Environment and Development

Recommendations

[2]

Do you agree with the following


recommendations?

Thus, decisions should be based on objective


assessments of costs and benefits

Governments can play a key role in promoting


the wider use of EMS and in helping to reduce
costs

Business co-operation, including between large


and small companies, can also play an
important role

Priority may be given to particular sectors


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Other issues for discussion

What are the opportunities and risks for


companies in developing countries
Can ISO 14001 be a tool for environmental
management
At the company level?
In environmental policy making?
What are the trade implications of ISO 14001,
particularly for developing countries?
What are the needs of developing countries,
particularly with regard to national
implementation issues?
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Thank you

TrainforTrade: Trade, Environment and Development