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Cause and Effect Connectives

Conjunctions
One of the easiest constructions to show cause and
effect is with the use of coordinating conjunctions
.Theseconjunctionsjointwoindependentclausestomake
acompoundsentence.Conjunctionsthatcommunicatethe
ideaofcauseandeffectaresoandfor.Youcanseeinthe
sentencesbelowhowtheylinktwoideastogethertoshow
theirrelationship.
Hewasinlovewithher,soheaskedhertomarryhim.
Heaskedhertomarryhimforhewasinlovewithher.

Prepositions
Another simple way to show cause and effect between
two ideas is through the use of prepositions.Seehowthe
prepositionsinthefollowingsentenceslinktheideasinthe
sentence.
Heaskedhertomarryhimbecause ofhisloveforher.
Heaskedhertomarryhimdue tohisloveforher.
Heaskedhertomarryhimdue to the fact thatheloved
her.(Notethisexpressionisusedprimarilyinveryformal
situations.)

AdverbClauses
Adverb clauses are a great way to show cause and effect
relationships between ideas. Seehowthefollowingadverb
clauseslinkideasinacauseandeffectrelationship.
Heaskedhertomarryhimbecausehelovedher.
Heaskedhertomarryhimsincehelovedher.
Heaskedhertomarryhimnow thathelovedher.

Transitions
Transitions are a way to connect ideas that appear in
separate sentences.Thefollowingtransitionsshowacause
andeffectrelationshipbetweenideas.
Helovedher.Thereforeheaskedhertomarryhim.
Helovedher.Consequently,heaskedhertomarryhim.
Helovedher.As a result,heaskedhertomarryhim.

Connectives that Express Contrast

Conjunctions
These are the coordinating conjunctions which
communicate an idea of contrast.
Sheacceptedhisproposal,butshedidntlovehim.
Sheacceptedhisproposal,yetshedidntlovehim.
Shedidntlovehim,butsheacceptedhisproposalanyway.
Shedidntlovehim,butshestillacceptedhisproposal.

Prepositions
Here are some prepositions which communicate the idea
of contrast.
Sheacceptedhisproposaldespiteherdislikeforhim.
Sheacceptedhisproposalin spite ofherlackoflovefor
him.
Sheacceptedhisproposaldespite the fact thatshedidnt
lovehim.

AdverbClauses
Subordinating conjunctions such as even though,
although, though, whereas, and while are great ways to
communicate that ideas are in contrast.
Sheacceptedhisproposaleven thoughshedidntlovehim.
Sheacceptedhisproposalalthoughshedidntlovehim.
Whileshedidntlovehim,sheacceptedhisproposal.

Transitions
Ideas of contrast dont have to appear in the same
sentence.Herearesometransitionsyoucanusetoshow
thattheideasinseparatesentencesareincontrastwitheach
other.
Shedidntlovehim.Nevertheless,sheacceptedhis
proposal.
Shedidntlovehim.Nonetheless,sheacceptedhis
proposal.
Shedidntlovehim.However,shestillacceptedhis
proposal.

Connectives that Express Conditions

Conjunctions
Or can be used to show that a certain condition must
be met for another action to take place.
Shemustloveme,or Iwillnotmarryher.
Shemustloveme,or else Iwillnotmarryher.

AdverbClauses
Subordinating conjunctions can show how certain
conditions are necessary for a given outcome.
Iwillnotmarryherunlesssheisinlovewithme.
Ifshedoesnotloveme,Iwillnotmarryher.
Iwillmarryherwhether or notshelovesme.
Iwillnotmarryherin the event thatshedoesnotloveme.

Transitions
Using the transition otherwise is a great way to
communicate a necessary condition without making a
complex or complicated sentence in English.
Shemustloveme.OtherwiseIwillnotmarryher.