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THE GAS

LAWS

BOYLES LAW
The
inverse
relationship
between pressure and volume
It states that the volume of a
sample
of
gas
changes
inversely with the pressure of
the gas as long as the
temperature and the amount
of the gas remain constant.

When the pressure of the


gas decreases, the volume
of the gas increases.
When the pressure of a gas
increases, the volume of the
gas decreases.

P1V1 = P2V2

SAMPLE PROBLEMS:
1. A tank of nitrogen has a
volume of 14.0 L and a
pressure of 760.0 mmHg.
Find the volume of the
nitrogen when its pressure is
changed to 400.0 mmHg
while the temperature is held
constant.

2. A 200-L helium gas at a


pressure of 280C and a
pressure of 2.0 atm was
transferred to a tank with a
volume of 68.0 L. What is
the internal pressure of the
tank if the temperature is
maintained?

3. A balloon contains 14.0 L of


air at a pressure of 760 torr.
What will the volume of the
air be when the balloon is
taken to a depth of 10 ft in a
swimming pool, where the
pressure is 981 torr? The
temperature of the air does
not change.

CHARLES LAW
States that the Kelvin temperature
and the volume of a gas are directly
related when there is no change in
pressure or amount of gas.
The relationship between volume
and temperature was first observed
by French physicist and balloonist
Jacques Charles.

V1 V2

T1 T2
V1 V2

T1 T2

SAMPLE PROBLEMS
1. A balloon has a volume of
2500.0 mL on a day when
the temperature is 30.00C. If
the temperature at night
falls to 10.00C, what will the
volume of the balloon if the
pressure remains constant?

2.
Find
the
final
temperature of a 2.00L gas sample at 20.00C
cooled until it occupies
a volume of 500 mL.

Do the ff. exercises:


1. A sample of freon gas used in
air conditioner has a volume of
325.0 L and a pressure of 96.3
kPa at 200C. What will the
pressure of the gas be when
its volume is 975.0 L at 200C?

2. A balloon contains 30.0L


of helium gas at 100 kPa.
What is the volume when
the balloon rises to an
altitude
where
the
pressure is only 25.0 kPa?

3. What is the volume of


a sample of thane at
467K and 2.25 atm if it
occupies 1.405 L at
300K and 2.25 atm?

4. The gas in a 1.00-L bottle


at 250C can be put into a
0.946 bottle at the same
pressure
if
the
temperature is reduced.
What
temperature
is
required?

THE COMBINED GAS LAW


The two gas laws can be
combined and treated as a
single law which describes
the relationship among the
pressure,
volume
and
temperature of a constant
amount of gas.

SAMPLE PROBLEMS:
1. A given mass of gas has a
volume of 800.0 mL at
23.00C and 300.0 torr. What
would the volume of the gas
be at 27.00C and 600.0 torr of
pressure? The amount of gas
is constant.

2. A 5.0 L air sample at a


temperature of 50.00C has
a pressure of 107.0 kPa.
What will the new pressure
be if the temperature is
raised to 100.00C and the
volume expands to 7.0 L?

3. A 3.50-L gas sample at


200C 200C and a pressure of
86.7 kPa
is allowed to
expand to a volume of 8.0 L.
The final pressure of the gas
is 56.7 kPa. What is the final
temperature of the gas?

5. A weather balloon is filled


with 16.0 L of helium at a
temperature of 260C and a
pressure of 700 mm hg.
What is the pressure of the
helium in the balloon in the
upper atmosphere when the
temperature is -330C and
the volume becomes 35.oL

THE IDEAL GAS LAW

The law that describes


the pressure, volume,
temperature,
and
number of moles of a
gas.

PV= nRT
Where:

P= pressure of the gas


V= volume of the gas
n= amount of gas
R= ideal gas constant
T= temperature of the
gas

At STP,
P= 1.0 atm= 101.325 kPa
V= 22.4 L
n= 1.0 mole
T= 273 K
R= 0.0821 atm x L/ mol x K
= 8.31kPa x L/ mol x K

SAMPLE PROBLEMS:

1. What volume will


1.27 mol of helium
gas
occupy
at
STP?

2. How many moles of


gas are contained in a
50.0-L cylinder at a
pressure of 100.0 atm
and a temperature of
35.00C?

3. What pressure will be


exerted by 0.450 mol
of a gas at 250C if it is
contained in a vessel
whose volume is 0.65
L?

4. You fill a rigid steel


cylinder with a volume
of 20.0 L with nitrogen
gas to a final pressure of
20 000 kPa at 270C. How
many moles of nitrogen
gas does the cylinder
contain?

Answer the following


exercises:
1. A deep underground cavern
contains 2.24 x 106 L of
methane
gas(CH4)
at
a
pressure of 1,500 kPa and a
temperature 420C. How many
kg of methane does this gas
deposit contain?

2. The volume of a gasfilled balloon is 30.0 L


at 40.00C and 150 kPa
pressure. What volume
will the balloon have at
STP?

3. The volume of a
sample of CO is 405
mL at 10.0 atm and
467 K. What volume
will it occupy at 4.29
atm and 467 K?

4. When a rigid hollow


sphere containing 680 L
of helium gas is heated
from 300 K to 600 K, the
pressure of the gas
increases to 1 800 kPa.
How many moles of
helium are in the sphere?

5. A container with an initial


volume of 1.0 L is occupied
by a gas at a pressure of 150
kPa at 250C. By changing the
volume, the pressure of the
gas increases to 600 kPa as
the temperature is raised to
1000C. What is the new
volume?

GAY- LUSSACS LAW

Temperature
and
pressure relationship
The pressure of a gas
is directly related to
its Kelvin temperature.

This means that an increase


in temperature increases
the pressure of a gas, and a
decrease in temperature
decreases the pressure of
the gas as long as the
volume and number of
moles of the gas remain
constant.

P1 P2

T1 T2
n1 n 2

V1 V2

SAMPLE PROBLEMS:
1. The gas left in a used
aerosol can is at a
pressure of 100 kPa at
270C. If the can is thrown
onto a fire, what will the
internal
pressure
be
when its temperature
reaches 9270C?

.
The
pressure
in
automobile tire is 200 kPa
at a temperature of 270C.
At the end of a journey on
a hot sunny day, the
pressure has risen to 223
kPa.
What
is
the
temperature of the air in
the tire?

AVOGADROS LAW

Equal volumes of
gases at the same
temperature and
pressure contain
equal numbers of
particles.

V1 V2

n1 n2

SAMPLE PROBLEMS
If 23.1 g of oxygen
occupies a volume of 5.0
L
at
a
particular
pressure
and
temperature,
what
volume will 2.5 g of
oxygen
gas
occupy
under
the
same
conditions?

Determine
the
volume
in
liters
occupied by 0.202
mol of a gas at STP.
How many oxygen
molecules are in 3.3
liters of oxygen gas
at STP?

Determine
the
volume
in
liters
occupied by 14.0 g
of N2 at STP.
What
volume
is
occupied by 4.02 x
1022 molecules of H2
at STP?

DALTONS LAW
At constant volume and
temperature, the total
pressure exerted by a
mixture of gases is
equal to the sum of the
partial pressures of the
component gases.

Ptotal=
P1+P2+P3

SAMPLE PROBLEMS

Determine
the
total
pressure of a gas mixture
that contains oxygen,
nitrogen, and helium if
the partial pressures of
the gases are 20.0 kPa,
46.7 kPa, and 26.7 kPa
respectively.

A balloon contains mostly He


and a little methane. The
partial pressure of helium is
101.2 kPa. If the pressure
inside the balloon is 101.3 kPa,
what is the partial pressure of
methane?
A 5.73- L flask at 250C contains
0.0388 mol of N2, 0.1 47 mol of
CO, and 0.0803 mol of H2. What
is the pressure in the flask in
atm and kPa?