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GPS Global Positioning System

Global Positioning System is 24 hour navigation

system.
Why GPS
Accuracy
Word wide application
Signals are not contaminated by the weather.
Signals independent of weather
Interference and obstruction from terrain and
topography is negligible.

GPS
Position fixing by GPS operates on the

principle of ranging
Range = Velocity x time of transmit.
Accuracy Clock

GPS Segments
The three basic segments of GPS:

The space segment


The control segment
The user segment.

GPS Space Segment


The satellites are in six orbital planes with four

satellite in each plane.


It takes the satellites 12 hr to complete one orbit.
Satellites transmit two types of codes:
Coarse/Acquisition Code
Precision Code
Precision clock is required to calculate accurately
range.

Satellite Constellation

Source: Avionics, Module 20: Radio Navigation Systems, National Training Materiels for the Aerospace Industry,
Australian National Training Authority, 1997, Fig.7.1, Page 7-2

Control Segment
The GPS control segment monitors all the satellite

clock differences and includes this information in


the satellite clocks can be considered
synchronized.
The receiver block is then corrected by measuring
the time shift required to line up a replica of the
code generated in the receiver with the received
code from the satellite.

Control Segment
Errors:

Satellite clock errors


Satellite orbital information error
Multi-path error
Receiver Vehicle Dynamics
Atmospheric Propagation error
Dilution of Precision

User Segment
GPS Receivers
Uplink - Control segment to space segment
Downlink space segment to user segment

and space segment to control segment

Differential GPS
Differential GPS is an accuracy enhancement

system, which uses a ground receiver at a known


location to check GPS signals and measure range
errors. The corrections are then broadcast from a
local Transmitter, which allows GPS users in the
vicinity to include the correction in their
calculations.
GPS reference station is fixed at a geodetically
surveyed position.

Differential GPS

Source: Avionics, Module 20: Radio Navigation Systems, National Training Materiels for the Aerospace Industry,
Australian National Training Authority, 1997, Fig.7.1, Page 7-11

GPS Applications

Aviation
Naval Operations
Weapons Delivery
Surface Transport
Public Safety
Exploration
Agriculture
Space applications

Reference
To learn more about GPS:

www.trimble.com and go to tutorial on GPS