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The Human

Eye

The Human Eye

Structure & Function

IRIS

coloured part of eye


controls light entering

PUPIL

black hole in iris


where light enters

Structure & Function

SCLERA

whites of the eye


supports eyeball
provides attachment
for muscles

LENS

converging lens
allows us to see
objects near and far

Structure & Function

CORNEA

transparent bulge over


pupil
focuses light (refracts)
onto retina

RETINA

internal membrane
contain light-receptive
cells (rods & cones)
converts light to electrical
signal

Blind Spot

On retina where optic


nerve leads back into
the brain
No rod or cone cells
Other eye
compensates for this
area
Try this test to prove
you have a blind spot

Normal Eye Focus

Blind spot

Aqueous humor and Vitreous


humor

The Aqueous Humor is the clear liquid between


the cornea and the lens. It has the benefit of being
fairly homogenous and, as a result, the optical
properties are easily measured. (Le Grand, 1967)
The space that it inhabits is called the anterior
chamber.
The Vitreous Humor is the clear liquid between
the lens and the retina.
The space that it fills is called the vitreous body.

Functions?

Provides nourishment to the eyelens and


cornea.
Cannot use the blood vessels:

Will block the light.


Easy for surgical transplant.

Hold the shape of the eyeball.

Choroid: carries mayor blood vessels to


nourish the retina and absorb the light so that
it will not be reflected back (dark pupil!)

Structure & Function

RODS

120 million cells


detect brightness
(black & white)
for night vision
At high level of illumination rod cells completely
loss their sensitivity because inside rod presence
of a photosensitive pigments which is called
RHODOPSIN becomes bleached out
When illumination is low, takes times for
reactivation. Only material is seen but color not
detected is called Scotopic vision.

CONES

6 million cells
detect colour (RGB)
GANGLION CELLS
Detect movement and patterns

Three different kinds of cones whose


responses are mainly at short,
intermediate and long wavelengths

s-cones absorb short wavelength light best,


with peak response at 450 nm (blue)
L-cones absorb long wavelength light best,
L-cones
with peak response at 580 nm (red)
i-cones
i-cones absorb intermediate wavelengths
s-cones
best, with peak response at 540 nm (green)
Light at any wavelength in the visual
spectrum from 400 to 700 nm will excite
these 3 types of cones to a degree depending Spectral response of cones in typical human eye
on the intensity at each wavelength.
Our perception of which color we are seeing
(color sensation) is determined by how
much S, i and L resonse occurs to light of a
particular intensity distribution.

Rule: To get the overall response of each type of


cone, multiply the intensity of the light at each
wavelength by the response of the cone at that
wavelength and then add together all of the
products for all of the wavenumbers in the
intensity distribution

relative response

Focusing Problems
HYPEROPIA
Far-sightedness
Problem seeing close
objects
Distance between lens
and retina too small
Light focused behind
retina
Corrected with
converging lenses

Far-Sighted (Hyperopia)

Focusing Problems
PRESBYOPIA
Form of far-sightedness
Harder for people to
read as they age
Lens loses elasticity
Corrected by glasses
with converging lenses

Focusing Problems
MYOPIA
Near-sightedness
Problem seeing objects
far away
Distance between lens
and retina too large
Light focused in front of
retina
Correct with diverging
lenses

Near-Sighted (Myopia)

Diseases of the Eye


ASTIGMATISM
Eye cannot focus an
objects image on a
single point on retina
Cornea is oval instead
of spherical
Causes blurred vision
Some types can be
corrected with lenses

Diseases of the Eye


GLAUCOMA
Group of diseases
Affects optic nerve pressure
Loss of ganglion cells
Gradual loss of sight
and eventual blindness
Check eyes regularly
Can be treated

Diseases of the Eye


CATARACTS
Clouding forms in lens
due to denaturing of
lens protein
Obstructs passage of
light
Caused by age, chronic
exposure to UV, or due
to trauma
Removed by surgery