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Preparation and

characterisation of chrome
aventurine glass

Presented by:

CONTENTS

Introduction
Literature survey
Objective of the Project
Experimental
Result
Future work
References

Introduction
Scientific definition of glass is: a solid having a noncrystalline structure, which continuously converts to a liquid
upon heating
According to ASTM C162, Glass is an inorganic product of
fusion which has cooled to a rigid condition without
crystallizing.
The glass has been used as an engineering material since
ancient times. But because of the rapid progress made in the
glass industry in recent times, the glass has come out as the
most versatile engineering material of the modern times. With
the help of techniques developed in the glass industry, the
glass of any type and quality can be produced to suit the
requirements of different industries

application
Glass beads, counters, toys, and
jewelry are produced almost
universally
Used in the production of lenses and
prisms
Vassel,laboratory apparatus
As a decorative
Here I am preparing chrome
aventurine glass which is a Cr2O3
doped soda-lime-silica glass ceramic

Litrature Review
CHEMISTRY OF GLASS- The main
constituent of Glass is SiO2 . The basic
building block of silica has a tetrahedral
pyramid shape with silicon at its centre linked
symmetrically to four oxygen atoms at its
corners. it has the chemical formula SiO4 and
is negatively charged.

Constituent of glass
Glass former are usually the dominant constituent
SiO2, B2O3, P2O5, etc.

Fluxes: reduce melting temperatures


Na2O, PbO, K2O, Li2O, etc

Property modifiers: added to tailor chemical durability, expansion,


viscosity, etc.
CaO, Al2O3, etc

Colorants: oxides with 3d, 4f electron structures; minor additives


(<1 wt%)

. Fining agents: minor additives (<1 wt%) to help promote bubble


removal

As-, Sb-oxides, KNO3, NaNO3, NaCl, fluorides, sulfates

Classification of Glasses

The main types of glass, according to


physico-chemical composition, are:
Soda-lime glass-It is composed of:
_ 71-75% silicon dioxide (SiO2 derived
mainly from sand)
_ 12-16% sodium oxide (Na2O derived
from soda ash Na2CO3)
_ 10-15% calcium oxide (lime, CaO
derived from limestone CaCO3)
_ Low levels of other components

Lead crystal and crystal glass-The typical lead


crystal composition is:
54-65% SiO2,25-30% PbO ,13-15% Na2O or K2O
Lead oxides (PbO and Pb3O4) are used to increase the
refractive index of the glass
Borosilicate glass-A typical borosilicate glass
composition is:
70-80% silicon dioxide SiO2, 7-15% B2O3,4-8% Na2O or
K2O
,7% Al2O3
Electric glass - E glass is a special type of borosilicate
glass where part of the boron trioxide has been
replaced by aluminum oxide, and is also characterized
by a low alkali content (<2%)

Characteristics of glass
It absorbs, reflects or transmits light.
It has no sharp melting point.
It is an excellent electrical insulator at high
temperatures due to the fact that glass can
be considered as an ionic liquid.
It is extremely brittle.
It is possible to obtain glasses with diversified
properties as the glasses may be clear,
colorless, diffused and stained.

BASIC DEFINITIONS RELATED TO GLASS


CRYSTAL FORMATION
Nucleation-Nucleation is the process where droplets of liquid
can condense from a vapor, or bubbles of gas can form in a
boiling liquid. The nucleation step is carried out at lower
temperatures .it is is generally of two type homogeneous
nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation
Crystal growth- Crystal growth is a major stage of a
crystallization process, and consists in the addition of new
atoms, ions, or polymer strings into the characteristic
arrangement . growth step is carried out at higher temperatures
Glass and crystal- A crystal is a solid material whose
constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are arranged in an orderly
repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions

RECRYSTALLIZED GLASS (GLASSCERAMICS)

Recrystallized glass, also known as polycrystalline glass, is


commonly produced by adding nucleating agents to the
glass batch
Glass-ceramics are mostly produced in two steps: First, a
glass is formed by a glass manufacturing process. The glass
is cooled down and is then Reheated in a second step In this
heat treatment the glass partly crystallizes
Crystallization of Glass- Crystallization from a
super cooled liquid state above the Tg
progresses via two processes; i.e. nucleation
and crystal growth. The rates of nucleation and
crystal growth depend on the heat-treatment
temperature as well as crystalline composition

Glass Color Mechanisms

Glass can be colored by dissolved ions (predominantly


transition metal and rare earth ions due to different redox
species at relatively high concentrations. The most
commonly used transition metals are Fe, Cr, Co and N
The precise color introduced depends on the oxidation
state of the ion and this in turn can be influenced by the
batch composition and melting conditions.
Colorants- The first of these include there is those
materials oxides which seen to be in true solution in the
glass The second group includes those few elementary
substances whose coloring effect seems to be due to their
presence as particles of colloidal size.

NO

COLOUR

SUBSTANCE

DARK BLUE OR DARK BROWN OR DARK


VOILET

COBALT, MANGNESE AND


IRON OXIDES

GREEN

FERRIC OXIDE ( Fe3O4 ),


CHROMIUM OXIDE
( Cr2O3)

RED

CUPROUS OXIDE ( Cu2O ),


METALLIC GOLD

VOILET

MANGANESE DIOXIDE
( MnO2)

WHITE OPAQUE

TIN OXIDE,
CALCIUM PHOSPHORATE
[Ca3( PO4 )2]

YELLOW OR BROWN

ANTIMONY TRISULPHATE
( Sb2S3 ), CHARCOAL,
SILVER BORATE, ETC.

AVENTURINE GLASS
It is a translucent glass, sometimes called Goldstone,
synthetic substance which is notable for exhibiting the
effect of aventurescence
Aventurine glass has been produced in reddish-brown, blue,
purple and green colors
used in jewelry, and as a decorative
it is a man-made glass which consists of minute
octahedral crystals of chromium dispersed in
glass to created a glittering appearance.
PROPERTIES OF AVENTURINE GLASS Structure and Color-Aventurine glass consists
of many different particles embedded in glass.

Glittering effect-This effect is present in all surfaces that use a


layer of metallic flakes or crystals to obtain their appearance. In
aventurescent gems the particles are much larger and further
apart, which leads to the characteristic, individual sparkles
found on such stones
PREVIOUS WORK ON RELATED TO THIS PROJECT M. D. Shcheglova, 1 T. V. Bambino, 1 S. G. Polozhai and V. M.
Svistun did work on aventurine formation in copper-containing
sodium-lead silicate glass
The results of our experiments allow us to infer that the process
of aventurine formation consists of the following stages:
-- melting of the charge components accompanied by reduction
of Cu20 to metallic copper;
-- melting and fining of the glass with the formation of an
emulsion of drops of metallic copper in the silicate melt;
-- cooling of the glass and coarsening of copper micro drops
due to their merging and segregation

A. G. Monaco, V. N.Pavlova, and A. V. Litvinov did


work have developed and mastered a continuous
method for obtaining the new glass- crystalline material
V. I. Polyushkin studies that how it is possible to make
efficient use of chrome to obtain chrome aventurine
fluorine-containing glasses
However, fluorine is a toxic and volatile component and
found that The best decorative properties were found in
the aventurine glass 22/I (1.96% Cr203)

OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT


preparation of chrome aventurine glass to be used for decorative purposes.
preparation of Cr2O3 doped soda-lime-silica glass followed by their
suitable heat treatment to develop crystalline phases..
batches with varying compositions will be prepared to form glass ceramic
materials.
the different characterization will be carried out by following
techniques: DTA/TGA of glass samples prepared
XRD of the formed samples before and after heat treatment to identify
crystalline phases.
density measurement of the glass and glass ceramic samples thus
prepared.
micro structural evaluation by scanning electron microscopy.

EXPERIMENTAL

Batch preparation- Glass batch


calculation or glass batching is used to
determine the correct mix of raw materials
(batch) for a glass melt.
For the development of chrome aventurine
glass we took the following glass
composition as parent glass composition
70 SiO2.20Na20.10CaO.
We doped various amount of Cr2O3 to the
parent glass composition to study the effect
of its addition.Cr2O3 doped various batch
compositions are given in tables

Compound

Glass composition weight (%)


TABLE
SS1

SS2

SS3

SS4

SS5

SiO2

67

66

65

64

63

Na2O

20

20

20

20

20

CaO

10

10

10

10

10

P2O5

Cr2O3

Glass Melting- , the sample system with

crucible was put inside the electric furnace. Each batch


was heated up to 1400 C then the molten glass was
casted by pouring it onto a brass plate
Annealing- Annealing is a process of slowly cooling
glass to relieve internal stresses after it was formed.
All the glasses samples were annealed at 500C for 5
hour to remove the thermal strain in the glass.
CharacterizationX-Ray Diffraction Study- In order to confirm the
amorphous nature of the glass sample X-ray diffraction
patterns were observed a using XRD machine

DENSITY MEASUREMENT-

WALKERS STEELYARD METHOD- This


apparatus consists of a long graduated beam
which is pivoted near one end and
counterbalanced by a heavy weight suspended
from the short arm

RESULT AND DISCUTTION

PREAPERED GLASS BEFORE CUTTING AND HEAT


TREATMENT-

SS1

SS2
SS4

SS5

SS3

DENSITY MEASUREMENT
D e n s ity (g m /c c )

2.57

2.56

2.55

2.54

2.53

2.52
SS1

SS2

SS3

Sample Name

Sample
Sample
Sample
Sample
Sample

SS1- Cr2O3-2%
SS2- Cr2O3-3%
SS3- cr203-4%
SS4- cr2o3-5%
SS5-cr2o3-6%

SS4

SS5

Phase analysis: Characterization by XRD


In te n s i ty ( A .U .)

S S1

220
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

2 theta(degree)

In t e n s i t y ( A .U .)

240

240

SS2

220
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
0

10

20

30

40

50

2 theta (degree)

60

70

80

90

I n te n s i ty ( A . U )

200

SS3

180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

2-theta(degree)

I n te n s i ty ( A . U ) )

220

SS4

200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
0

10

20

30

40

50

2theta(degree)

60

70

80

90

I n te n s ity ( A . U )

220

SS5

200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
0

10

20

30

40

50

2theta(degree)

60

70

80

90

Above figures show that original glass


samples from SS1 SS5 has no
crystalline phase after melting. hence;
the glass was completely amorphous
and did not undergo any crystallization
during melting

. FUTURE WORK
DTA/TGA and of glass samples to find crystalline
temperature of glass
Heat treatment of glass samples after cutting at
different crystalline temperature and time
XRD of glass ceramic after heat treatment of glass
to find crystalline phase
SEM measurement of glass to find microstructure
of glass

REFRENCES
Singh K, Bahadur D, Characterization of SiO2-Na2O-Fe2O3CaO-P2O5-B2O3 glass ceramics. J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Med.
10,481 (1999)
E. P. Mel'nikov1.J.E.Shelby, Introduction to glass science and
technology, 2nd Edition, RS.C
V. D. Obolkin, and A. A. Evstropov, Sov. Geol., No. 8, 36 (1981);
V. D.
Obolkin, E. P. Mel'nikov, and A. A. Evstropov, Izv. Akad. Nauk
SSSR , No. 6, 119 (1981).
V. I. Polyushkin SYNTHESIS OF FLUORINE-FREE CHROME
AVENTURINE GLASSES
M. D. Shcheglova, 1 T. V. Babenko, 1 S. G. Polozhai, 1 and V. M.
Svistun 1mechanism of aventurine formation 1~coppercontaining alkali-lead silicate glassVoL 53, Nos. 1- 2, 1996
.J.E.Shelby, Introduction to glass science and technology,
2nd Edition, RS.C

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