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Advanced Juniper Networks Routing

Release 5.1, Revision 0

Module 2: OSPF Stub Areas

Copyright 2001, Juniper Networks, Inc.

Module Objectives
Review the basic components of the OSPF Protocol
Discuss the OSPF neighbor hello protocol and

adjacency formation process


Examine the function of the Link-State Database
(LSDB) and how it contributes routes to the routing
table
Look at the different kinds of OSPF packet types
Configure OSPF on a Juniper Networks router

Copyright 2001, Juniper Networks, Inc.

LSA Flooding: Default


Area 0
LSA 1

Area 0
LSA 2
Area 1
LSA 3

Area 1
LSA 1

Area 1
LSA 2

Area 0
Area 0
LSA 3
LSA 4
Area 2
Area 3
LSA 3
LSA 4
Area 3
Area 0
LSA 3
LSA 5
Area 3
LSA 5
Area 1

Backbone
(0.0.0.0)

Area 2
LSA 3

External
Routes

Area 0
LSA 5

Area 3
LSA 5

Area 3 Area 3
LSA 3 LSA 4

Area 2
LSA 1

Area 3
LSA 1

Area 3
LSA 2
Area 0
Area 0
LSA 3
LSA 4
Area 1
Area 0
LSA 3
LSA 5
Area 2
LSA 3
Area 3
LSA 5

Area 2
LSA 2

Area 0
LSA 3
Area 1
LSA 3
Area 3
LSA 3

Area 0
LSA 4
Area 3
LSA 4
Area 0
LSA 5
Area 3
LSA 5
Area 2

External
Routes

Copyright 2001, Juniper Networks, Inc.

Area 3

OSPF Stub Areas


Reduces the size of the link-state database
ABR does not inject Type 4 LSA into area
ABR does not flood Type 5 LSA into area
Reachability for routes external to OSPF is achieved

via a 0/0 default route injected by the ABR


Manual configuration step for administrator control

ASBR in a stub area cant flood LSAs for those routes


Virtual links cant transit a stub area

Copyright 2001, Juniper Networks, Inc.

LSA Flooding: Stub Area


Area 0
LSA 1

Area 0
LSA 2
Area 1
LSA 3

Area 1
LSA 1

Area 1
LSA 2

Area 0
LSA 3
Area 2
LSA 3
Area 3
LSA 3

Backbone
(0.0.0.0)

Area 2
LSA 3

Area 0
LSA 5

Area 3
LSA 5

Area 3 Area 3
LSA 3 LSA 4

Area 2
LSA 1

Area 3
LSA 1

Area 3
LSA 2
Area 0
Area 0
LSA 3
LSA 4
Area 1
Area 0
LSA 3
LSA 5
Area 2
LSA 3
Area 3
LSA 5

Area 2
LSA 2

Area 0
LSA 3
Area 1
LSA 3
Area 3
LSA 3
Area 1
Stub

External
Routes

Area 0
LSA 4
Area 3
LSA 4
Area 0
LSA 5
Area 3
LSA 5
Area 2

External
Routes

Copyright 2001, Juniper Networks, Inc.

Area 3

OSPF Stub No-Summaries Areas


Further reduces the size of the link-state database
ABR does not inject Type 3 LSA into area
ABR does not inject Type 4 LSA into area
ABR does not flood Type 5 LSA into area
Reachability for external routes is still via a 0/0 default

route injected by the ABR


Again, a manual configuration step for administrator control

ASBR in a no-summaries area cant flood LSAs for

those routes
Virtual links cant transit a no-summaries area

Copyright 2001, Juniper Networks, Inc.

LSA Flooding: Stub No-Summaries


Area 0
LSA 1

Area 0
LSA 2
Area 1
LSA 3

Area 1
LSA 1

Area 1
LSA 2

Area 0
LSA 3
Area 2
LSA 3
Area 3
LSA 3

Backbone
(0.0.0.0)

Area 2
LSA 3

Area 0
LSA 5

Area 3 Area 3
LSA 3 LSA 4

Area 2
LSA 1

Area 3
LSA 1

Area 2
LSA 2

Area 0
LSA 3
Area 1
LSA 3
Area 3
LSA 3
Area 1
Stub

External
Routes

Area 0
LSA 4
Area 3
LSA 4
Area 0
LSA 5

Area 2

External
Routes

Copyright 2001, Juniper Networks, Inc.

Area 3
LSA 2

Area 3
Stub
No-Summaries

Stub Area Configuration


Each router in the area is required to configure itself

as a stub router
The ABR can optionally inject a default route via the
default-metric command
[edit protocols ospf]
user@area-1-router# set area 1 stub
user@area-1-router# show
area 0.0.0.1 {
stub;
interface so-0/0/0.0;
}
[edit protocols ospf]
user@area-1-abr# set area 1 stub default-metric 10
user@area-1-abr# show
area 0.0.0.1 {
stub default-metric 10;
interface so-0/1/1.0;
}

Copyright 2001, Juniper Networks, Inc.

No-Summaries Area Configuration


Only the ABR is required to configure itself to support

a no-summaries area
The ABR can optionally inject a default route via the
default-metric command

[edit protocols ospf]


user@area-1-abr# set area 1 stub no-summaries
user@area-1-abr# show
area 0.0.0.1 {
stub default-metric 10 no-summaries;
interface so-0/1/1.0;
}

Copyright 2001, Juniper Networks, Inc.

Area-Range
All local area routes are forwarded to the backbone by

default
Stub only changes what enters an area, not what leaves

To summarize routing information headed to the

backbone, use the area-range command


Only a single Type 3 LSA will be injected into the
backbone
Configured on the ABR only
[edit protocols ospf]
user@host# set area 1 area-range 192.168.16/20
[edit protocols ospf]
user@host# show
area 0.0.0.1 {
area-range 192.168.16.0/20;
interface at-1/0/1.100;
}

Copyright 2001, Juniper Networks, Inc.

Area-Range Restrict
Adding the restrict keyword to the area-range

command stops all routes in the range from entering


the backbone
No Type 3 LSA will be injected into the backbone
Configured on the ABR only
[edit protocols ospf]
user@host# set area 1 area-range 192.168.16/20 restrict
[edit protocols ospf]
user@host# show
area 0.0.0.1 {
area-range 192.168.16.0/20 restrict;
interface at-1/0/1.100;
}

Copyright 2001, Juniper Networks, Inc.

Review Questions

Copyright 2001, Juniper Networks, Inc.