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WORK

is done only when a

constant force applied on an
object, causes the object to
move in the same direction as
the force applied.

What

IS considered as work done in

Physics:
You push a heavy shopping trolley for 10 m
You lift your school bags upwards by 1 m

What

You push against a wall

Jumping continuously on the same spot
Holding a chair and walking around the

classroom
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WORK
WORK can be calculated by:

force (N)

Distance moved
in the direction
of force (m)

W =F x s
Units: [J]

[N]

[m]

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You are helping to push your mothers

heavy shopping cart with a force of 50 N
for 200 m. What is amount of work done?

Work done,

W= F x s
= 50 x 200
= 10,000 J
or
10 kJ (kilo-Joules)
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Jack put on his bag-pack of weight 120 N.

He then starts running on level ground for
100 m before he started to climb up a
ladder up a height of 10 m. How much
work was done?

From Physics point of view, no work is done on pack at

level ground. Reason: Lift is perpendicular to movement.
Work is done on pack only when Jack climbs up the ladder.
Work done, W = F x s
= 120 x 10
= 1200 J or 1.2 kJ
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Energy is the capacity to do work

SI Unit: Joule (J)
Many forms
Common ones:

Kinetic
Potential
Electric
Chemical
Solar
Nuclear
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Kinetic Energy (KE)

A form of energy that a body in motion

possess.
A body a rest, will it possess any KE?
Examples:
Bullet shot out from pistol
Helicopter flying at 120km/h

Kinetic Energy (KE)

The amount of KE of a moving body depends

on:
Mass of body (kg)
Velocity (ms-1)

Kinetic Energy (KE)

Formula:

Kinetic Energy =
KE =
Units:

[J]

1
2
1
2

x Mass x (Velocity) 2
x m x v2
[kg] [ms -1]2

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KE = m v2
Velocity, V
Mass = m kg

Find the KE of an empty van of mass 1000kg moving at

2m/s.
KE of van at 2m/s = x 1000 x (2)2
= 2000 J = 2 kJ

Find the KE of van when it is loaded with goods to give

a total mass of 2000kg, and moving at 2m/s.
KE of van at 2m/s = x 2000 x (2)2
= 4000 J = 4 kJ

Find KE of unloaded van when it speeds up to 4m/s.

KE of van at 2m/s = x 1000 x (4)2
= 8000 J = 8 kJ
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Kinetic Energy (KE)

Formula: KE = mv2
From the formula, what can you infer about

the change in KE when

Mass doubles
Velocity doubles

KE doubles
KE increases by FOUR times

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Examples of KE
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Find the KE of motorcycle after 5s. Mass of

motorcycle is 200 kg.
Velocity of motorcycle after 5s,

a = (v-u)
t
v = 2(5) + 0 = 10m/s

KE of motorcycle at 10m/s = x 200 x (10)2

= 10,000 J = 10 kJ

Potential

energy is the energy

possessed by an object as a result of
its POSITION or CONDITION.

Two

common kinds:

Gravitational PE
Elastic PE

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Energy that can be possessed by an object due to its

CONDITION. Examples:

Slinky when stretched or compressed

Spring when stretched or compressed
Rubber band when stretched
Balloon with air when compressed

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Gravitational PE
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Energy that can be possessed by an object due to its

POSITION.
In Physics, ground level is normally assumed to be at ZERO

GPE.
Any object that is at ground level has ZERO GPE.
If object is lifted a certain height above ground, its GPE has
increased.
Examples:

When a chair lifted from ground a distance of 1m

You sitting on the 3rd storey of this building

Gravitational PE
Can be calculated with:

acceleration
=

m g h

Units:
[J]

[kg] [m/s2]

[m]

SI Units of GPE : Joule [J]

g
earth

ground level
Object on top of
building, of mass, m
Distance from
ground, h
Ground,
0 GPE

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Example of GPE
You lifted your bags to the top of your table.
What can you say about the GPE of your bag?
Zero, increase, decrease

Lift the same bag on the Moon. What happens

to GPE?
Zero, increase, decrease

Will the GPE be the same on Earth and Moon?

Same, less on Moon, more on Moon?

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Examples of GPE
You lifted a set of books of mass 3kg, for 2m. What
is the GPE gained by the books? Take g=10m/s2.
GPE = mgh
= 3 10 2
= 60 J

Find the work done by you to lift the books.

Work done, W = F d
= (m g) d
= 3 x 10 x 2
= 60 J

(F = weight of books)
(Note: same as GPE)
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of Energy

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Energy

of an object can be thought

of as the sands in an hourglass!

Energy

always remain same or

fixed in quantity!

But this sand can change position, from the top to bottom

Likewise energy can

change in form eg. From KE PE
and bottom to top!

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nor destroyed!

So what does this mean when viewed

in context of the Earth?

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Conservation of Energy
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another.
Eg.

Burning candle: Chemical Heat, Light

Fuel: Chemical Heat KE Electricity
Nuclear explosion: Nuclear Heat, light
Spring: Elastic PE KE

KE

GPE

And such situations are only found

when a moving object is at the same
time undergoing changes in height

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Conversion26 of Energy
Eg. of KE PE
Roller-coaster
Falling object

Free Falling object model

An object in free fall means the object is

When the object is at the highest position,

the GPE is at maximum and KE is zero.
When the object is falling, the GPE decreases
as it loses height, and the KE increases
At the lowest position, the KE is at maximum
and GPE is zero.
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Eg. of Conservation of Energy

A fresh durian of mass 5 kg is found growing at the end of a

tree branch 20 m above ground. When ripe, the durian will by

itself drops to the ground below. Let gravity = 10m/s2.
Find the energy of the fresh durian? What form is it?
GPE.

Find the GPE and KE of the durian when it is 5m above

ground. Sum up both the GPE and KE and compare the value
with above. What can you infer from the results?
GPE = 5 x 10 x 5 = 250J.

s = vt, v = gt
s = gt2, t = sqrt 3
KE = mv2 = (5)(10sqrt3)2 = 750J
v = 10(sqrt 3)
Sum of energies = 250 + 750 = 1000J
Same as above => energy is conserved.

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Eg. of Conversion of
Energy
A car of 800 kg is moving at an average speed of 5 m/s.
The traffic light changed to red and so the driver stepped
on the brakes to bring the car to a quick, sudden and
screeching halt.
Find energy of moving car and what form of energy is this?
KE. KE = mv2 = x 800 x 52 = 10,000 J.
What energy does the car possesses when it stops?
None.
What happened to the original energy of the moving car?
KE has changed to Sound and Heat Energy.

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