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WORK

is done only when a


constant force applied on an
object, causes the object to
move in the same direction as
the force applied.

What

IS considered as work done in


Physics:
You push a heavy shopping trolley for 10 m
You lift your school bags upwards by 1 m

What

is NOT considered as work done:

You push against a wall


Jumping continuously on the same spot
Holding a chair and walking around the

classroom
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WORK
WORK can be calculated by:

Work done = Constant x


force (N)

Distance moved
in the direction
of force (m)

W =F x s
Units: [J]

[N]

[m]

SI Unit for Work is JOULE (J)


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You are helping to push your mothers


heavy shopping cart with a force of 50 N
for 200 m. What is amount of work done?

Work done,

W= F x s
= 50 x 200
= 10,000 J
or
10 kJ (kilo-Joules)
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Jack put on his bag-pack of weight 120 N.


He then starts running on level ground for
100 m before he started to climb up a
ladder up a height of 10 m. How much
work was done?

From Physics point of view, no work is done on pack at


level ground. Reason: Lift is perpendicular to movement.
Work is done on pack only when Jack climbs up the ladder.
Work done, W = F x s
= 120 x 10
= 1200 J or 1.2 kJ
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Energy is the capacity to do work


SI Unit: Joule (J)
Many forms
Common ones:

Kinetic
Potential
Electric
Chemical
Solar
Nuclear
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Kinetic Energy (KE)


A form of energy that a body in motion

possess.
A body a rest, will it possess any KE?
Examples:
Bullet shot out from pistol
Helicopter flying at 120km/h

Kinetic Energy (KE)


The amount of KE of a moving body depends

on:
Mass of body (kg)
Velocity (ms-1)

When either mass or velocity of moving body

is increased, KE will also increase.

Kinetic Energy (KE)


Formula:

Kinetic Energy =
KE =
Units:

[J]

1
2
1
2

x Mass x (Velocity) 2
x m x v2
[kg] [ms -1]2

SI Unit: Joule [ J ] same as Work Done


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Kinetic Energy (KE)


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KE = m v2
Velocity, V
Mass = m kg

Find the KE of an empty van of mass 1000kg moving at


2m/s.
KE of van at 2m/s = x 1000 x (2)2
= 2000 J = 2 kJ

Find the KE of van when it is loaded with goods to give


a total mass of 2000kg, and moving at 2m/s.
KE of van at 2m/s = x 2000 x (2)2
= 4000 J = 4 kJ

Find KE of unloaded van when it speeds up to 4m/s.


KE of van at 2m/s = x 1000 x (4)2
= 8000 J = 8 kJ
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Kinetic Energy (KE)


Formula: KE = mv2
From the formula, what can you infer about

the change in KE when


Mass doubles
Velocity doubles

KE doubles
KE increases by FOUR times

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Examples of KE
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A motorcycle accelerates at 2m/s2 from rest for 5s.

Find the KE of motorcycle after 5s. Mass of


motorcycle is 200 kg.
Velocity of motorcycle after 5s,

a = (v-u)
t
v = 2(5) + 0 = 10m/s

KE of motorcycle at 10m/s = x 200 x (10)2


= 10,000 J = 10 kJ

Potential

energy is the energy


possessed by an object as a result of
its POSITION or CONDITION.

Two

common kinds:

Gravitational PE
Elastic PE

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Energy that can be possessed by an object due to its


CONDITION. Examples:

Slinky when stretched or compressed


Spring when stretched or compressed
Rubber band when stretched
Balloon with air when compressed

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Gravitational PE
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Energy that can be possessed by an object due to its

POSITION.
In Physics, ground level is normally assumed to be at ZERO

GPE.
Any object that is at ground level has ZERO GPE.
If object is lifted a certain height above ground, its GPE has
increased.
Examples:

When a chair lifted from ground a distance of 1m


You sitting on the 3rd storey of this building

Gravitational PE
Can be calculated with:

GPE = mass gravitational height above


acceleration
=

m g h

Units:
[J]

[kg] [m/s2]

[m]

SI Units of GPE : Joule [J]

g
earth

ground level
Object on top of
building, of mass, m
Distance from
ground, h
Ground,
0 GPE

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Example of GPE
You lifted your bags to the top of your table.
What can you say about the GPE of your bag?
Zero, increase, decrease

Lift the same bag on the Moon. What happens


to GPE?
Zero, increase, decrease

Will the GPE be the same on Earth and Moon?


Same, less on Moon, more on Moon?

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Examples of GPE
You lifted a set of books of mass 3kg, for 2m. What
is the GPE gained by the books? Take g=10m/s2.
GPE = mgh
= 3 10 2
= 60 J

Find the work done by you to lift the books.


Work done, W = F d
= (m g) d
= 3 x 10 x 2
= 60 J

(F = weight of books)
(Note: same as GPE)
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Conservation & Conversion


of Energy

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Energy

of an object can be thought


of as the sands in an hourglass!

Energy

always remain same or


fixed in quantity!

But this sand can change position, from the top to bottom

Likewise energy can


change in form eg. From KE PE
and bottom to top!

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Note that energy CANNOT be created


nor destroyed!

So what does this mean when viewed


in context of the Earth?

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Conservation of Energy
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Conversion of energy is the term used to

denote change in energy from one form to


another.
Eg.

Burning candle: Chemical Heat, Light


Fuel: Chemical Heat KE Electricity
Nuclear explosion: Nuclear Heat, light
Spring: Elastic PE KE

For O-Levels, we are only concerned with:

KE

GPE

And such situations are only found


when a moving object is at the same
time undergoing changes in height

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Conversion26 of Energy
Eg. of KE PE
Roller-coaster
Falling object

Free Falling object model


An object in free fall means the object is

falling freely, under the influence of gravity

When the object is at the highest position,


the GPE is at maximum and KE is zero.
When the object is falling, the GPE decreases
as it loses height, and the KE increases
At the lowest position, the KE is at maximum
and GPE is zero.
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Eg. of Conservation of Energy


A fresh durian of mass 5 kg is found growing at the end of a

tree branch 20 m above ground. When ripe, the durian will by


itself drops to the ground below. Let gravity = 10m/s2.
Find the energy of the fresh durian? What form is it?
GPE.

GPE = mgh = 5 x 10 x 20 = 1000J

Find the GPE and KE of the durian when it is 5m above

ground. Sum up both the GPE and KE and compare the value
with above. What can you infer from the results?
GPE = 5 x 10 x 5 = 250J.

s = vt, v = gt
s = gt2, t = sqrt 3
KE = mv2 = (5)(10sqrt3)2 = 750J
v = 10(sqrt 3)
Sum of energies = 250 + 750 = 1000J
Same as above => energy is conserved.

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Eg. of Conversion of
Energy
A car of 800 kg is moving at an average speed of 5 m/s.
The traffic light changed to red and so the driver stepped
on the brakes to bring the car to a quick, sudden and
screeching halt.
Find energy of moving car and what form of energy is this?
KE. KE = mv2 = x 800 x 52 = 10,000 J.
What energy does the car possesses when it stops?
None.
What happened to the original energy of the moving car?
KE has changed to Sound and Heat Energy.

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