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5.

Multiple Access Techniques for Wireless


Communication

5.1. Introduction
5.2. FDMA, TDMA,CDMA,SDMA,FHMA

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Multiple Access Techniques for Wireless


Communication

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5.1. Introduction:
In wireless communication systems, it is often desirable
to allow the subscriber to send simultaneously
information to the base station while receiving
information from the base station.
For e.g.: In conventional telephone system, it is possible
to talk and listen simultaneously, and this effect, called
Duplexing, is generally required in wireless telephone
system.
Duplexing may be done using frequency or time
domain techniques.

5. Multiple Access Techniques for Wireless Communication


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Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD) provides two distinct


bands of frequencies for every user.
The forward band provides traffic from the base station to the
mobile, and the reverse band provides traffic from the mobile to
the base station.
In FDD, any duplex channel actually consists of two simplex
channels. (A forward and reverse), and a device called a
DUPLEXER is used inside each subscriber unit and base station
to allow simultaneous bidirectional radio transmission and
reception for both the subscriber unit and the base station on
the duplex channel pair.
The frequency separation between each forward and reverse
channel is constant throughout the system, regardless of the
particular channel being used.

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Time Division Duplexing (TDD) uses time instead of frequency to


provide both a forward and reverse link.
In TDD, multiple users share a single radio channel by taking
turns in a time domain
Individual users are allowed to access the channel in assigned
time slots, and each duplex channel has both a forward time slot
and a reverse time slot to facilitate bidirectional communication.
TDD allows a communication on a single channel ( as opposed
to requiring two separate simplex or dedicated channels) and
simplifies the subscriber equipment since a duplexer is not
required.

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There are several tradeoffs between FDD and TDD approaches.


FDD is geared towards radio communication systems that
allocated individual radio frequencies for each user.
TDD enabble each transceiver to operate as either a Tx or Rx on
the same frequency, and eliminates the need for separate
forwared and reverse frequency bands.
TDD generally is limited to cordless phone or short range
portable access.
TDD is effective for fixed wireless access when a all users are
stationary so that propagation delays do not vary in the time
among the users.

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Multiple Access Concept What is Multiple Access?


Multiple Access is the simultaneous
use of a communication system by
more than one user
Each users signal must be kept
uniquely distinguishable from other
users signals, to allow private
communications on demand
Users can be separated many ways :
- Physically : on separate wires
- by arbitrarily defined channels established in
frequency, time, or any other variable imaginable

Transmission
Medium

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Multiple Access Concept 3 methods

time
time

FDMA(Frequency Division Multiple


Access)

power

- User separated by frequency(30KHz Channels)


- Example : AMPS
time

TDMA(Time Division Multiple Access)

frequency

power

- User separated by frequency and time(30KHz


channels with 6 timeslots)
- Example : IS-54/136, GSM
frequency

CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access

power

- User separated by private digital code


- Example : IS-95A/B, J-STD-008, IS-2000
frequency

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Multiple Access Concept - FDMA


Each user occupies a private Frequency, protected from interference
through physical separation from other users on the same frequency
Amplitude

Sub Channel

Sub Channel

Total Band

Sub Channel

Frequency

Guard Band

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Multiple Access Concept - FDMA


Advantages
- Easy to realize
- Less ISI(Inter Symbol Interference) Equalizer not needed
- Network Synchronization not needed
- Easy Bit Time Recovery and Frame Synchronization
- Voice Coder not needed

Disadvantages
-Guard Band is needed to reduce interference between frequency
-Maximum bit rate per channel is fixed and low
- Encryption is Difficulty
- Low Efficiency for Non-voice Data Transmission
- Restricted Capacity due to the Low Spectrum Utilization :

Multiple Access Techniques for Wireless Communication


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Multiple Access Concept - TDMA


Each user occupies a specific Frequency but only during an
assigned time slot.
The frequency is used by other users during other time slots
Channel 1

Buffer 1

Channel 2

Buffer 2

Channel 3

Buffer 3

Clock

Channel n

Channel 3 Channel 2 Channel 1

One Channel of FDMA


Channel n

Buffer n

Frame
Frame
Sync bit

Slot 1

Slot 2

Slot 3

Sync bit

Signaling
bit

Information
bit

.......

Guard
Bit

Slot N

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Multiple Access Concept - TDMA


Advantages
- Frequency Sharing among N Users by time Scheduling
- Variable bit rate by changing slots
- Mobile assisted/controlled handoff enable by available measurement slots

Disadvantages
- Complexity inherent in slot/frequency allocation
- High data rate imply need for equalization to overcome Inter Symbol Interference
- Large Overhead and Complex Hardware
-Restricted Capacity by Frequency Band and Time Slot
-Requires signal processing for matched filter and correlation detection for
synchronization with a time slot .

CDMA
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ORIGINATING SITE

DESTINATION
Spread Data Stream

Input
Data

Recovered
Data

Spreading
Sequence

Spreading
Sequence

Any data bit stream can be combined with a spreading sequence


The resulting signal can be de-spread and the data stream recovered if the
original spreading sequence is available and properly synchronized
After de-spreading, the original data stream is recovered intact

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ORIGINATING SITE
X+A

DESTINATION

Spread-Spectrum Chip Streams


X+A+B
X+A+B+C
X+A+B

X+A

Input
Data

Recovered
Data

Spreading Spreading Spreading


Sequence Sequence Sequence

Spreading Spreading Spreading


Sequence Sequence Sequence

Multiple spreading sequences can be applied in succession and then


reapplied in opposite order to recover the original data stream.
The spreading sequences can have different desired properties.
All spreading sequences originally used must be available in proper
synchronization at the recovering destination.

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Multiple Access Concept - CDMA


Each users signal is a continuous unique code pattern buried within
shared signal, mingled with other users code pattern. If a users code
pattern is known, the presence or absence of their signal can be
detected, thus conveying information
All CDMA users occupy the same frequency at the same time.
- Time and Frequency are not used as discriminators

CDMA interference comes mainly from nearby users


CDMA operators by using CODING to discriminate between users
Each user is a small voice in a roaring crowd but with a uniquely
recoverable code

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Multiple Access Concept - CDMA


Advantages
- Easy to Voice Encryption through the PN Sequence using spread spectrum
- Large Capacity 10~15 times than AMPS by using the Voice Activity
- High Frequency Utilization - Frequency Reusing Factor is 1
- Better Voice Quality : Less Fading due to the Variable Diversity Technology
- Easy to trace the MSs Location by using the GPS

Disadvantages
- Difficult to Control the Power of MS and BTS
- Failing the Power Control affect all voice call in one cell
- Receiver is complex for PN Sequence Acquiring and Tracing

Multiple Access Techniques for Wireless Communication


Characteristics of CDMA
Advantages of CDMA

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Large Capacity 10~15 times larger than AMPS


- Coding/Modulation Scheme, Voice Activity, Sectorization, Universal Frequency Reuse
1
4

1
7
6
1

1
2

4
7

4
7

1
1

2
3

3
5

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

AMPS Frequency Reuse of 7

High Quality

1
1

1
5

CDMA Frequency Reuse of 1


(Reuse planning not required)

- Overcoming the Multi-path Fading with Rake Receiver


- Decrease Call Drop through the Soft Handoff
- Using Vocoder with variable bit rate

Characteristics of CDMA
Advantages of CDMA

CDMA Concepts

Soft Capacity
- Traffic Channel Allocation is fixed in AMPS
- Dynamic Channel Allocation is enable in voice quality allowing range in CDMA

Canceling the Interference


- Using Spread Spectrum
- Receivers de-spread wanted signals and spread interferences in received signals

Soft Handoff
- Enable Soft Handoff : CDMA Cells use same frequency with adjacent Cells
- Less Call Drop

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Characteristics of CDMA
Advantages of CDMA

CDMA Concepts

Power Control and Low Transmit Power


- Excellent Power Control Scheme
- Signal to Noise Ratio is less than TDMA or FDMA
- Increased System Capacity, Transmitting Less Power(Longer Battery Life)
- Less Power Consumption, Small and Light size

Enable Voice Privacy


- Using Spread Spectrum and PN Code for Digital Signal Transmission

Support Various Supplemental Service


- Voice Dialing Service, VMS(Voice Mailing Service), SMS(Short Message Service)
- Fax, Packet Data, VOD(Video on Demand), Multi-media Service

Economic
- Easy to Cell Planning, Need less BTS than AMPS
- Transmitting less Power

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Multiple Access Techniques for Wireless Communication


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SPREAD SPECTRUM MULTIPLE ACCESS:


-Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA) uses signals which have
a transmission bandwidth that is several orders of magnitude
grater than the minimum required RF bandwidth.
- A pseudo-noise (PN) sequence converts a narrow band signal to a
wideband noise-like signal before transmission.
- SSMA provides immunity to multipath interference and robust
multiple access capabilities.
- SSMA is not very bandwidth efficient when used by a single used.
However, since many users can share the same spread spectrum
bandwidth without interfering with one another, spread spectrum
becomes bandwidth efficient in multiple user environment.
- There are mainly two types of SSMA techniques: Frequency
Hopped Multiple Access (FHMA) and Direct Sequence Multiple
Access or Code Division Multiple Access.

Multiple Access Techniques for Wireless Communication


Frequency Hopped Multiple Access (FHMA):

Introduction
- Frequency Hopped Multiple Access(FHMA) is a digital
multiple access technique.
- It is a kind of Spread Spectrum Multiple Access technique
which involves a periodic change of transmission
frequency. It may be regarded as a sequence of modulated
data bursts with time-varying, pseudorandom carrier
frequencies.
- It allows multiple users to simultaneously occupy the same
spectrum at the same time.

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Multiple Access Techniques for Wireless Communication


Frequency Hopped Multiple Access (FHMA):

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How does it works?


In this system ,carrier frequencies of the individual users are
varied in a pseudo random fashion within a wide band
channel.
The digital data of each user is broken into uniform sized
bursts which are transmitted in different channels within the
allocated spectrum band.
The instantaneous bandwidth of any one transmission burst is
much smaller than the total allocated spread bandwidth.
In the receiver side, a locally generated PN code is used to
synchronize the receivers instantaneous frequency with that
of the transmitter.

Fast/ Slow frequency hopping system


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Fast frequency hopping system:


If hopping rate( the rate of change of the carrier
frequency) is greater than the symbol rate , then it is
called fast frequency hopping system.
That means,there is more than one frequency hop
during each transmitted symbol.
Slow frequency hopping system:
If hopping rate is less than or equal to the symbol
rate,then it is called as slow frequency hopping
system.

Basic Advantages and Disadvantages


Advantages
It provides a level of security.
It is somewhat immune to fading through the use of error
control coding and interleaving can be used to protect the
signal against deep fades.
Error control coding and interleaving can combined guard
against erasures .
Power efficiency and low cost implementation is another
advantages of this technology.
It is robust against the adverse propagation conditions and
interference.
Disadvantages:
Accurate synchronization is required.
A rapid change in frequency is needed.

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Multiple Access Techniques for Wireless Communication


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Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA):


o SDMA controls the radiated energy for each user in space.
o SDMA serves different users by using spot beam antennas.
o These different areas covered by the antenna beam may be
served by the same frequency (in a TDMA or CDMA system) or
different frequencies (in an FDMA system).
o In the future, adaptive antennas will likely to be used to
simultaneously steer energy in the direction of many users at
once and appear to be best suited for TDMA and CDMA base
station architectures.
o Adaptive antennas implement optimal SDMA, thereby providing
a unique channel that is free from the interference of all other
users in the cell, with same channel.
o Perfect adaptive antennas is not feasible since it requires
infinitely large antennas.