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VIBRATION AWARENESS COURSE

2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated


All rights reserved.

Objectives of this course


Define the three modes of vibration
Differentiate between modes and dysfunctions of vibration
List the operation parameters that can be changed to reduce vibration
List the sources of drillstring excitation
Define critical speeds, resonance, and natural frequency
Identify the worst mode and dysfunction of vibration for our tools
Interpret the published VSS flow charts
2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated
All rights reserved.

Vibration Costs

Customer Costs: ~$300 million per year


Reduced drilling efficiency
Lost time due to tool failures

BHI Costs: ~$35 million per year


Tool failures
Tool repair
Rebates to customers

2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated


All rights reserved.

Definitions of Vibration
Vibration Movement To and Fro. Often referred to as

oscillations, periodic motion, shocks. BHI material


A rapid linear motion of a particle or of an elastic solid

about an equilibrium position The American Heritage Dictionary of the


English Language, Fourth Edition Copyright 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.

A periodic motion of the particles of an elastic body or

medium in alternately opposite directions from the


position of equilibrium when that equilibrium has been
disturbed (as when particles of air transmit sounds to the
ear) Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary, 2002 Merriam-Webster, Inc.
a regular periodic variation in value about a mean WordNet
2.0, 2003 Princeton University
2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated
All rights reserved.

Definitions

Amplitude

2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated


All rights reserved.

Excitation Sources
Cutting action of bit
Drill string rotation
Eccentric action of mud motors
Pump pulsations
Stabilizer contacts with borehole wall
Drill string / wellbore interaction
2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated
All rights reserved.

Natural Vibration Simple Model


Mass
Provides inertia
Resists changes in motion (speeding up, slowing

down)

Stiffness
Provides a restoring force
Tries to bring position back to initial state

Damping
Stiffness

Damping (not dampening - to moisten)


Takes energy out of the system
Friction, viscous drag
2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated
All rights reserved.

Mass

Natural Transient Response


Single DOF System Behavior: Transient

Response to a temporary disturbance


Pull on the mass and let it go ...
Moderate Damping

Stiffness

Undamped
Damping

Heavy Damping

1.00

Mass

Displacement

Displacement

0.75
0.50
0.25
0.00
0.0
-0.25

1.0

2.0

-0.50
-0.75
-1.00

2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated


All rights reserved.

Time

3.0

4.0

5.0

Natural Frequency

Natural Frequency
Forced Vibration
Resonance
Critical Speed
Damping
2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated
All rights reserved.

Eliminating Resonance
Change the excitation frequencies
(and magnitudes)
Adjust rotary speed
Adjust pump strokes

6.0

Change the natural frequencies of


the drill string
Bit type and/or design
Drillstring design
Adjust the weight on bit
Drill collar sizes and lengths
Stabilizer type and placement
Drill pipe sizes and lengths

2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated


All rights reserved.

Amplitude

5.0

Low Damping

4.0
3.0

Medium

2.0

High

1.0
0.0
0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

Frequency Ratio

2.0

Remember - Critical Speeds occur


when.
Rotary Speed
=
Natural Frequency
=
Resonance
2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated
All rights reserved.

Vibration - Multiple DOF Systems

Axial ~ along its axis

Lateral ~ transverse to its axis

Torsional
Lateral

Torsional ~ twist about its axis

2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated


All rights reserved.

Axial

Three Degrees of Freedom

AXIAL

LATERAL

TORSIONAL
2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated
All rights reserved.

VSS

Published Guidelines

2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated


All rights reserved.

Key Points Vibration Theory

Natural vibration occurs at a Natural Frequency


and amplitude
remains
amplitude
Frequency

constant if undamped (Simple MSD system in a perfect world)


Damping
frequency
is unchanged
natural
frequency
Dampingreduces amplitude over time, but natural
Forced vibrations Amplitude increases as the excitation frequency
approaches the natural frequency
Amplitude
Resonance is a condition where excitation frequency = natural frequency.
Amplitude increases significantly
natural
Resonance Avoidance Change something
frequency
Excitation sources
Natural Frequency of Drill String

2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated


All rights reserved.

Key Points Vibration Principles Applied


to Drill Strings

Drill strings are complex system with 3 Degrees of Vibrational

Fredoom or Modes

Axial
Torsional
Lateral

naturalfrequency
Critical speeds occur when rotary speed matches a natural
resonance
and causes resonance
Well Done!
2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated
All rights reserved.

Remember - Critical Speeds occur


when.
Rotary Speed
=
Natural Frequency
=
Resonance
2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated
All rights reserved.

Objectives of this course


Define the three modes of vibration
Differentiate between modes and dysfunctions of vibration
List the operation parameters that can be changed to reduce vibration
List the sources of drillstring excitation
Define critical speeds, resonance, and natural frequency
Identify the worst mode and dysfunction of vibration for our tools
Interpret the published VSS flow charts
2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated
All rights reserved.