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Truss & Its Characteristics:

A truss is a structure comprising
one or more triangular units .

A triangle

is the simplest geometric

figure that will not change shape
when the lengths of the sides are

is constructed with straight




are connected at joints

referred to as nodes.

forces and reactions to

those forces are considered to act
only at the nodes
Force acting on the members can
either be tensile or compressive.


are excluded because all

the joints in a truss are treated
as Hinges or Revolute.



Truss & Its Component:

Heel - The point on the truss where the top and bottom chords intersect
Slope - The vertical rise in inches for every 12 inches of horizontal run.
Panel Length - The horizontal distance between the centerlines of two consecutive panel
points along the top or bottom chord.
Peak - The point on the truss where the sloped chords meet.
Top Chord - Horizontal distance between the centerlines of two consecutive panel points along
the top or bottom chord.
Continuous Lateral Brace - Members installed at right angles to a chord or web member of a
truss to provide stability to the truss. All lateral braces must be stabilized.
Overall Height - Vertical distance between bearing and the uppermost point of the peak.

Truss & Its Component:

Wedge - The triangular piece of lumber inserted between the top and bottom chords, usually to
allow the truss to cantilever.
Bottom Chord - The incline or horizontal member that establishes the bottom of a truss,
usually carrying combined tension and bending stress.
Splice - The location at which two chord members are joined together to form a single member.
It may occur at a panel point or between panel points.
Panel Point - Also called a joint, it's the location on a truss where the web members and top or
bottom chords intersect and are connected by metal connector plates.
Web - The members that join the top and bottom chords to form the triangular patterns typical
of trusses.

Truss & Its Component:

Bearing - Structural support, usually a beam or a wall that is designed by the designer to carry
the truss reaction loads to the foundation.
Overhang - Extension of the top chord of a truss beyond the outside of the bearing support.
Span - The horizontal distance between the outside edges of the exterior bearing supports, or
the bottom chord length, whichever is greater.
Bottom Chord Length - Usually the same as the span.
Cantilever - The part of the truss that extends beyond its support, not the same as an overhang.
Truss Plate Are plates which are used to connect the members together in the truss
manufacturing process.

Analysis Of Truss:
There are 4 main assumptions
made in the analysis of Truss
system :

members are connected

together at their ends
Truss are connected together
by frictionless pins

Truss structure is loaded only

at joints.

Weight of the truss members

may be neglected.

Different Types Of Trusses:

Flat Truss

Queen Post Truss

Bowstring Truss

Lenticular Truss

King Post Truss

Town Lattice Truss

Parallel Chord Truss:

Also known as Flat truss

Has parallel top chord

and bottom chord.


top and bottom chord

must be correctly positioned
during installation to ensure
structural integrity is

usually designed to be
supported at the ends only
Often used for floor

Bowstring Truss:
Also known as
Crescent Truss


a truss consisting of
curved top chord
meeting bottom chord
at each end.
Has diagonal loadbearing members.

Often confused
with tied arch bridges

King Post Truss:

A king post is also known as
crown post truss


is the simplest form of

truss .
Is used for simple roof
trusses and short-span

Truss consists of two

diagonal members that meet
at the apex of the truss,.


of one horizontal
beam that ties the bottom end
of the diagonals together

king post connects the

apex to the horizontal beam

Queen Post Truss:

Is similar to a king post truss

Is used for simple roof

trusses and short-span

Is a supporting post
designed to span longer
openings than a king post.

A king

post uses one central

supporting post, whereas the
queen post uses two.

Lenticular Truss:
A lenticular

truss bridge
includes a lens-shape truss.
It has trusses between an
upper arch & lower arch.

Upper curves up and then

down to end points while
lower arch curves down and
then up to meet at the same
end points. where the arches
extend above and below the


used in the
construction of stadium.

Town Lattice Truss:

Was an alternative to
heavy-timber bridges.


consists of parallel
top chord & bottom chord
Consists of planks which
are arranged diagonally
with short spaces in between

Treenails, or wooden
pins, connect the bridge's
timbers at each intersection
of the truss system.


used in the
construction of bridges

Advantages Of Truss :

Are Cost effective.

Can be installed quickly even without heavy equipment to lift it

into place.

Unique properties of a triangular object allow trusses to span

across longer distances.

A triangular truss maintains its shape, preventing shift and sag.

Thus giving stability to the structure.

The shape of a triangle allows all of the weight applied to the

sides to be redistributed down and away from the center.