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Understanding Electrical Equipment

and Motors for Energy Conservation

Prof K.Narayanan
EEE dept / Chief Coordinator IIPC
Kongu Engineering College

Transmission and Distribution Lines

The power plants produce 50 Hertz, (AC) electricity with
voltages between 11kV and 33kV.
At the power plant site, the 3-phase voltage is stepped up
to a higher voltage for transmission on cables strung on
cross-country towers.
High voltage (HV) and extra high voltage (EHV)
transmission is the next stage from power plant to
transport A.C. power over long distances at voltages like;
220 kV & 400 kV.
Where transmission is over 1000 kM, high voltage direct
current transmission is also favoured to minimize the
Sub transmission at 132 kV,110 kV, 66 kV ,33kV,22kV
Distribution at 11kV, 6.6 kV, 3.3 kV

T&D Loss

Efficiency 1

Efficiency ranges 28-35 % with respect to size of thermal

plant, age of plant and capacity utilisation

Step-up Station

Step-up to 400 / 800 kV to enable EHV transmission.

Envisaged max. losses 0.5 % or efficiency of 99.5 %

Transmission &
3 Station

EHV transmission and substations at 400 kV / 800 kV.

Envisaged maximum losses 1.0 % or efficiency of 99 %

Transmission &
Station 4

HV transmission & Substations for 220 / 400 kV.

Envisaged maximum losses 2.5 % or efficiency of 97.5 %

Subtransmission 5

Sub-transmission at 66 / 132 kV
Envisaged maximum losses 4 % or efficiency of 96 %

Station 6

Distribution 7

End user

Step-down to a level of 11 / 33 kV.

Envisaged losses 0.5 % or efficiency of 99.5 %

Distribution is final link to end user at 11 / 33 kV.

Envisaged losses maximum 5 % of efficiency of 95 %

Cascade efficiency from Generation to end user

= 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

The cascade efficiency in the T&D system from output of the power plant to the end use
is 87% (i.e. 0.995 x 0.99 x 0.975 x 0.96 x 0.99.5 x 0.95 = 87%)

Why high voltage is preferred in T&D

Higher the voltage lesser the Voltage drop
Voltage drop proportional to the ratio of voltages

Power loss = I2R

Higher the voltage, lesser the current and lesser the power loss

For ex. If voltage is raised from 11 kV to 33 kV the

voltage drop would be lowered by a figure of 1/3 and
line loss would be lowered by (1/3)2
Higher voltage can also bring down the conductor sizes
on account of lower currents handled



11 KV/440V


Dist. loss
1 -6%










Figure 1.3 Electrical Distribution System Single Line Diagram



Electricity Billing
HT or LT Tariff
Two Part tariff for HT Consumers
The consumer pays for two components.
- Eenergy Charges for kWh consumed
- Maximum demand Charges (kVA) registered
PF penalty or PF incentives
TOD, (peak and non-peak )
MD Penalty

Months maximum demand

As can be seen from the figure above the demand varies from
time to time. The demand is measured over predetermined time
interval and averaged out for that interval as shown by the
horizontal dotted line.

Example: MD recording
It is important to note that while maximum demand is recorded, it is
not the instantaneous demand drawn, as is often misunderstood, but
the time integrated demand over the predefined recording cycle.
As example, in an industry, if the drawl over a recording cycle of 30
minutes is :
2500 kVA for 4 minutes
3600 kVA for 12 minutes
4100 kVA for 6 minutes
3800 kVA for 8 minutes
The MD recorder will be computing MD as:
(2500x4) +(3600 x 12) + (4100 x 6) + (3800 x 8) = 3606.7 kVA

1.3 Load Management

Reschedule loads/Staggering of motor loads
Storage of products/in process
material/process utilities like refrigeration
Shedding of non essential loads
Operation of Captive power generation
Reactive power compensation

Load Management: Staggering of motors

1.4 Power Factor Improvement

Two types of Electrical loads

In most modern electrical distribution

systems, the predominant loads are
resistive and inductive.
1) Resistive loads are incandescent lighting
and resistance heating.
2) Inductive loads are A.C. Motors, induction
furnaces, transformers and ballast-type

Unity Power factor

Zero Power Factor

0.7 power factor

Inductive loads require two kinds of power:

1. Active (or working) power to perform the work (motion) and
2. Reactive power to create and maintain electro-magnetic
The vector sum of the active power and reactive power make
up the total (or apparent) power used. This is the power
generated by the utility for the user to perform a given amount
of work.

Transformer loading 1160/1500 = 78 %

Capacitors totaling 410 kVAr installed in

each of the 13 large motors
Transformer loading 913/1500 = 61 %

How to determine the Rating of capacitors required?

The utility bill shows an average power factor of .72 with an average KW of 627. How
much KVAR is required to improve the power factor to .95 ?

Cos = 0.72 , Tan

Cos = 0.95 , Tan
Kvar required P ( Tan Tan
= 627 (0.964 0.329)
= 398 kVAr

1. Locate 0.72 (original power factor) in column (1).Refer table.
2. Read across desired power factor to 0.95 column. We find .635 multiplier
3. Multiply 627 (average KW) by .635 = 398 KVAR.
4. Install 400 KVAR to improve power factor to 95%.
Now that we have determined that capacitors totaling 400 KVAR must be installed, we
must decide where to locate them.

Where to Locate Capacitors?

For motors of 50 hp and above, it is
best to install power factor correction
capacitors at the motor terminals since
distribution circuit loading is reduced.
The second arrangement shows
capacitor banks connected at the
bus for each motor control centre.
This compromise to Method 1 will
reduce installation costs.
The least expensive method shows
capacitor banks connected at the
service entrance. However, the
disadvantage is that higher feeder
currents still flow from the service
entrance to the end of line

Reduction in Distribution Loss

As current flows through conductors, the conductors heat. This
heating is power loss
Power loss is proportional to current squared (P Loss =I2R)
Current is proportional to P. F.:
Conductor loss can account for as much as 2- 5% of total load
Capacitors can reduce losses by 1- 2% of the total load

% Loss Reduction = 1 -

PF1 / PF2

x 100

Reduced Maximum demand charges

kW = kVA x Cos
If the maximum demand is 1500 kVA at 0.85 p.f.
calculate the reduction in demand at 0.95 p.f.
Active Power = 1500 x 0.85 = 1275 kW
Maximum demand after pf improvement,
kVA at 0.95 p.f. = 1275/0.95 = 1342 kVA


What are the Types of

Power transformers : Used in transmission
network of higher voltages, deployed for step-up
and step down transformer application (400 kV,
200 kV, 110 kV, 66 kV, 33kV,22kW)
Distribution transformers: Used for lower
voltage distribution networks as a means to end
user connectivity. (11kV, 6.6 kV, 3.3 kV, 440V,

How to calculate Transformer

losses ?
1. Load loss (or copper loss)
2. No load loss (or iron loss)

The total transformer loss, PTOTAL, at any

load level can then be calculated from:

Case Example:
For a load of 1500 KVA the plant has installed three numbers of 1000 KVA
transformers. The No load loss is 2.8 KW and the full load loss 11.88 KW.
Estimate the total loss with 3 transformers in operation and 2 transformers
in operation.
a) 2 transformers in operation :
No load loss
Load loss

2 x 2.8 = 5.6

2 x (750)2 x 11.88
(1000) 2
13.36 kW

Transformer Loss vs. Load

Voltage fluctuation control

Off-circuit tap changer
It is a device fitted in the transformer, which is
used to vary the voltage transformation ratio. Here
the voltage levels can be varied only after isolating
the primary voltage of the transformer.

On load tap changer (OLTC)

Here the voltage levels can be varied without
isolating the connected load to the transformer.

Ways to minimise distribution losses

Relocating transformers and sub-stations near to load centers,
reducing LT network, (or increasing HT / LT ratio).
Re-routing and providing optimum size and number of such
feeders and lines where the losses / voltage drops are higher.
Power factor improvement by incorporating capacitors at load
Optimum loading of transformers in the system.
Opting for lower resistance All Aluminium Alloy Conductors
(AAAC) in place of conventional Aluminium Cored Steel
Reinforced (ACSR) lines
Minimizing losses due to weak links in distribution network
such as jumpers, loose contacts, old brittle conductors.

Energy Efficient Transformers

1600 kVA Amorphous

Core Transformer

Electrical Motors

Types of Motors
Motors convert electrical energy
into mechanical energy by the
interaction between the magnetic
fields set up in the stator and
rotor windings.
Industrial electric motors can be
broadly classified as induction
motors, direct current motors or
synchronous motors.
All motor types have the same
four operating components:
stator (stationary windings), rotor
(rotating windings), bearings,
and frame (enclosure

2.3 Motor Characteristics

Motor Speed

The actual speed, which the motor operates, will be less than the synchronous speed.
The difference between synchronous and full load speed is called slip and is measured
in percent. It is calculated using this equation:

Induction Motor Characteristics

Induction Motor Characteristics

Depending on the application, the motor can have

low rotor resistance and consequently low slip.
However the disadvantage is the large starting
current ( 600 % ).
Should be used for applications with infrequent
start stops and with large operating time .
The starting torque is comparatively low.
In general a good approximation of the motor
efficiency due to the rotor is ( 1-s).
The motor efficiency is comparatively high since
the slip s is very high.

Induction Motor Characteristics

The motor with larger rotor resistance are used
for frequent start-stop applications.
Their starting currents are less
They have more starting torque and hence
better for intermittent applications.
However the efficiency is low since slip s is high
and hence efficiency which is (1-s) is low
Select the motor depending on the application
whether it is running continuously or with
number of starts and stops and accordingly go
for motors with least rotor resistance or with
more resistance.

Power factor
Power Factor Cos


As the load on the motor is reduced, the magnitude of the active current reduces. However, there is not a
corresponding reduction in the magnetizing current, with the result that the motor power factor reduces, or gets
worse, with a reduction in applied load.

Motor Efficiency

Electric motors are electromagnetic energy converters

whose function is based on the force exerted between
electrical currents and magnetic fields which are usually
electrically excited as well. A typical value for an 11 kW
standard motor is around 90 per cent and, for 100 kW, up
to 94 per cent.

Range of losses in Induction motors

Energy Loss at
Full Load (%)

1 - 10


14.0 - 35

10 - 50


9.0 - 15

50 - 200


6.0 - 12

200 - 1500


4.0 - 07

1500 - HP & ABOVE

2.3 - 04

Motor losses
The % losses indicated are for 3000 rpm motors, and
1500 rpm motors in brackets.
Core Loss : approx 18% (22%) of total loss at full load
Stator and Rotor Resistance (I2R) Loss: approx 42% (56%) of total loss
at full Load
Friction and Windage Loss approx 30% (11%) of total loss at full load

Stray Load Loss : approx 10%(11%) of total loss at full load

Life cycle cost of a motor

Minimising motor losses in operation

System Approach: The key to large savings

Switch off equipment when not needed
Choose right size of the motor frame size and
energy efficient motors where ever possible
Provide better controls (VSD instead of

Maintain Voltage Levels

Although motors are designed to operate within 10% of
nameplate voltage, large variations significantly reduce
efficiency, power factor, and service life
When operating rated load and at less than 95% of design
voltage, motors lose on efficiency, and service temperatures
increase up to 20F, reducing insulation life.
However in practice, when the motor is less loaded (say 50 %
or less), operating the delta connected motor under star is
practiced to reduce fixed losses.
Running a motor above its design voltage also reduces power
factor and efficiency.

Minimize Phase Unbalance

Phase balance should be within 1% to avoid derating of the motor. Several factors
can affect voltage balance: single-phase loads on any one phase, different cable
sizing, or faulty circuits.
An unbalanced system increases distribution system losses and reduces motor

Voltage unbalance is defined as 100 times the maximum deviation of

the line voltage from the average voltage on a three-phase system
divided by the average voltage.
If line voltages measured are 431, 438 and 427 the average is 432.
The voltage unbalance is given by
= 1.1 %

Common causes of voltage unbalance

Faulty operation of power factor correction
Unbalanced or unstable utility supply.
Unbalanced transformer bank supplying a threephase load that is too large for the bank.
Unevenly distributed single-phase loads on the same
power system.
Unidentified single-phase to ground faults.
Percent additional temperature rise = 2 x (% voltage unbalance ) 2 . For
example, a motor with a 100C temperature rise would experience a
temperature increase of 8C when operated under conditions of 2%
voltage unbalance. Winding insulation life is reduced by one-half for each
10C increase in operating temperature.

Maintain High Power Factor

Low power factor reduces the efficiency of the electrical distribution
system .Low power factor results when induction motors are
operated at less than full load..
Maintain Good Power Quality
Motors are designed to operate using power with a frequency of 50
hertz and a sinusoidal wave form. Using power with distorted wave
forms will degrade motor efficiency.
Motor Controls
To reduce electrical consumption, use controls to adjust motor
speeds or turn off motors when appropriate.
Use Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs) or Two-Speed Motors Where
When loads vary, ASDs or two-speed motors can reduce electrical
energy consumption in centrifugal pumping and fan applications
often by 50% or more.

Consider Load Shedding

Use controls to turn off idling motors. Use of soft
starters prove helpful in increasing the number of
starts and stops per hour.
Match Motor Operating Speeds
The energy consumption of centrifugal pumps and
fans is extremely sensitive to operating speed. For
example, increasing operating speed by 2% can
increase the power required to drive the system by
Size Motors for Efficiency
Size motors to run primarily in the 65% to 100%
load range. Consider replacing motors running at
less than 40% load with properly sized motors.

Effect of over sizing

Why are motors often oversized?
Original design requires 7kW
Engineer adds in 10% for contingency 7.7kW
Selects next standard size motor - 11kW
Over rating = 57%
Operating a high capacity motor for lower loads results in
reduced efficiency, power factor and also increases the
energy consumption.

To meet 7.5 kW load if the motor selected is 7.5 /11 /15 kW then the variations in energy
consumption is as shown in Table below: Parameter

Case 1

Case 2

Case 3

Motor Load

7.5 kw at F.L.

10 kw at 3/4 load

15 kw at load

Required load




Motor EFF (%)




Motor input kw




Unit consumed kwh






% increase


Minimize Rewind Losses

Rewinding can reduce motor efficiency and reliability.
Rewind-versus-replace decision is quite complicated
and depends on such variables as the rewind cost,
expected rewind loss, energy-efficient motor
purchase price, motor size and original efficiency,
load factor, annual operating hours, electricity price,
Majority of the users would wish to rewind the motor.
During a motor failure or in the stripping of the
winding from the stator core prior to rewinding, high
temperatures can occur. These temperatures can, in
many cases, affect the electrical characteristics of
the stator core steel and result in increased iron
losses and lower motor efficiency.

Optimize Transmission
Transmission equipment including shafts, belts,
chains, and gears should be properly installed and
When possible, use flat belts in place of V-belts.
Helical gears are more efficient than worm gears;
use worm gears only with motors under 10 hp.
It is better to have a direct drive for avoiding losses
in transmission system.

Operating a motor in Star instead of Delta

When a delta motor is connected in star, the voltage
across the windings is reduced by the square root of
three resulting in reduced flux in the iron.
This will reduce the magnetising current, and will also
reduce the torque capacity of the motor.
If you operate at light loads, there will be no problem,
however if you operate at high loads, the slip of the
motor will be increased dramatically and it may stall.
The increased slip will result in a dramatic increase in
the power dissipated in the rotor. If the motor begins to
stall, the stator will also suffer excess heating causing
a motor failure.

Comparison of starters


Input Power Measurements
FirstmeasureinputpowerPiwithahandheldorinlinepowermeterPi = Three-phase
power in kW
Note the name plate rated kW and Efficiency
So corresponding input power at full-rated load


The percentage loading can now be calculated as follows




Energy Saving Recommendations in motors

The findings may include:
Identify the motors with <50 %, 50 -75 % , 75-100 % loading,
over 100 % loading.
Identify motors with low voltage / power factor / voltage
imbalance for needed improvement measures.
Identify motors with machine side losses / inefficiencies like idle
operations, throttling / damper operations for avenues like
automatic controls / interlocks, variable speed drives, etc.
The margins in motor efficiency may be less than 5% of
consumption often, but the load survey would help to bring out
savings in driven machines / systems, which can give 30 40 %
energy savings.

Energy Efficient Motors

Design changes
Table 10.1 Watt Loss Area and Efficiency Improvement

1. IronArea

Efficiency Improvement
Use of thinner gauge, lower loss core steel reduces eddy current
losses. Longer core adds more steel to the design, which reduces
losses due to lower operating flux densities.
2. Stator I 2 R
Use of more copper and larger conductors increases cross sectional
area of stator windings. This lowers resistance (R) of the windings
and reduces losses due to current flow (I).
3. Rotor I 2 R
Use of larger rotor conductor bars increases size of cross section,
lowering conductor resistance (R) and losses due to current flow (I).
4. Friction & Windage Use of low loss fan design reduces losses due to air movement.
5. Stray Load Loss
Use of optimised design and strict quality control procedures
minimizes stray load losses.

Technical aspects of Energy Efficient

Energy-efficient motors last longer, and may require less maintenance. At
lower temperatures, bearing grease lasts longer; required time between regreasing increases. Lower temperatures translate to long lasting insulation.
Generally, motor life doubles for each 10C reduction in operating temperature.
Electrical power problems, especially poor incoming power quality can affect
the operation of energy-efficient motors.
Speed control is crucial in some applications. In polyphase induction motors,
slip is a measure of motor winding losses. The lower the slip, the higher the
efficiency. Less slippage in energy efficient motors results in speeds about 1%
faster than in standard counterparts.
Starting torque for efficient motors may be lower than for standard motors.
Facility managers should be careful when applying efficient motors to high
torque applications.

Soft Starters


Variable Frequency Drives

Motors connected to VFD provide variable speed

mechanical output with high efficiency. These
devices are capable of up to a 9:1 speed reduction
ratio (11 percent of full speed), and a 3:1 speed
increase (300 percent of full speed).

Variable Torque Vs. Constant Torque

Variable torque loads include centrifugal
pumps and fans, which make up the
majority of HVAC applications.
Constant torque loads include vibrating
conveyors, punch presses, rock crushers,
machine tools, and other applications where
the drive follows a constant V/Hz ratio.
Typical full-load efficiencies are 95% and higher

Fluid coupling

Variable Speed drives


VVVF inverter
Two types of Speed Control Methodologies:

Below the rated frequency by maintaining the voltage to

frequency ratio (v / f ratio) constant so that the motor does
not get magnetically saturated.

Energy Conservation is achieved for variable torque loads at

reduced speeds.

PWM voltage source inverter with

diode rectifier front-end

Operation with variable frequency Inverters

beyond Rated frequency, fr
Constant HP mode of operation ( v = constant beyond fr )

Advantages of PWM inverter fed Induction

Limitations of AC induction Motors are
overcome by the feeding the motor with VVVF
We get a DC motor operating Characteristic
which is the normal requirement of a variable
speed drive system
The motor starting torque is increased
The motor starting current is reduced.
The motor efficiency remains same throughout
the speed range.
Motor pf remains same throughout the speed

Typical example of VVVF inverter

fed Induction Motor Application

Flow control of Pump and fans

Normally done through valves, damper etc.
Consumes same energy even at reduced flow
Affinity laws explained in the later slides
postulate that for reduced flow only reduced
head and power are required
AC motor speed control can be advantageously
used for energy saving

Flow control requirement by a

Pump Curve at
Const. Speed

Pump Efficiency 77%

closed valve

70 m


50 m
42 m


Full open valve

System Curves


Operating Points

Flow (m /hr)
300 m3/hr
500 m3/hr
If reduced flow of 300 m3 /hr only is required, the same is achieved by

(1) introducing additional resistance (by valve closing ) and operating with higher artificial head.
(2)Operating with a different pump curve( blue) or at reduced speeds and head through VSD.

Flow control through speed control

If the speed of the impeller is increased from N1 to N2 rpm,
the flow rate will increase from Q1 to Q2
as per the given formula:

Head Vs speed
The head developed(H) will be proportional to the square of the quantity
discharged, so that

Power Vs Speed
The power consumed(W) will be the product of H and Q, and, therefore

5. Effect of speed variation

From the above when the speed is decreased from 1480 RPM to 1184 RPM (i.e
80%), the flow decreases from approximately 950 m3 /mt to 760 m3 /mt ; It may be
noted that the pump efficiency
remains essentially the same at BEP for minor speed
changes ( 80 % reduction ). The power consumed reduces from 130 kW to 67 kW.

Effect of speed Variation

Use of variable speed drives

Harmonics and their Effects

What is Harmonics ?
In AC network, flow of current depends upon the voltage
applied and the impedance (resistance to AC) provided by
elements like resistances, reactances of inductive and
capacitive nature. As the value of impedance in above
devices is constant, they are called linear whereby the
voltage and current relation is of linear nature.
However in real life situation, various devices like diodes,
silicon controlled rectifiers, thyristors, voltage & current
chopping saturable core reactors, induction & arc furnaces
are also deployed for various requirements and due to
their varying impedance characteristic, these NON
LINEAR devices cause distortion in voltage and current
waveforms which is of increasing concern

Harmonics ?
Harmonics are multiples of the
fundamental frequency of an electrical
power system.
If, for example, the fundamental
frequency is 50 Hz, then the 5th harmonic
is five times that frequency, or 250 Hz.
Likewise, the 7th harmonic is seven
times the fundamental or 350 Hz, and so
on for higher order harmonics.

Major Causes Of Harmonics

Devices that draw non-sinusoidal currents when a sinusoidal

voltage is applied create harmonics. Frequently these are devices
that convert AC to DC. Some of these devices are listed below:

Electronic Switching Power Converters

Computers, Uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), Solid-state
Electronic process control equipment, PLCs, etc
Electronic lighting ballasts, including light dimmer
Reduced voltage motor controllers

Total Harmonic Distortion

Harmonics can be discussed in terms of current or voltage. A 5th
harmonic current is simply a current flowing at 250 Hz on a 50 Hz
system. The 5th harmonic current flowing through the system
impedance creates a 5th harmonic voltage.
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) expresses the amount of
harmonics. The following is the formula for calculating the THD
for current:


nn In
n2 I1

Mostly, 3rd,5th and 7th harmonics causes distortion.

Some of the Harmonic problems are

1. Blinking of Incandescent Lights
2. Capacitor Failure
3. Conductor Failure
4. Flickering of Fluorescent Lights
5. Fuses Blowing
6. Motor Failures (overheating)
7. Transformer Failures
8. Additional energy loss due to the individual
Harmonic currents resulting into higher RMS

Harmonic filters
Tuned Harmonic filters consisting of a capacitor bank and
reactor in series are designed and adopted for suppressing
harmonics, by providing low impedance path for harmonic
component. The Harmonic filters connected suitably near
the equipment generating harmonics help to reduce THD
to acceptable limits.
Benefits of Harmonic Filters
Improve power factor ratings through harmonic
Isolate harmonic currents
Minimize equipment problems through THD cancellation
Reduce wasted energy
Minimize current carried in plant cables


Basic Terms in Lighting System and Features

Lamps:Lamp is equipment, which produces light.
Incandescent lamps:
Incandescent lamps produce light by means of a filament heated to
incandescence by the flow of electric current through it. The
principle parts of an incandescent lamp, also known as GLS
(General Lighting Service) lamp include the filament, the bulb, the
fill gas and the cap.

Reflector lamps:
Reflector lamps are basically incandescent, provided with a high
quality internal mirror, which follows exactly the parabolic shape of
the lamp. The reflector is resistant to corrosion, thus making the
lamp maintenance free and output efficient.

Gas discharge lamps:

The light from a gas discharge lamp is produced by the excitation of

gas contained in either a tubular or elliptical outer bulb.

The most commonly used discharge lamps are

as follows:

Fluorescent tube lamps (FTL)

Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL)

Mercury Vapour Lamps (MVL)

Sodium Vapour Lamps (HPSV/LPSV)

Metal Halide Lamps

Luminaire is a device that distributes, filters or transforms the light
emitted from one or more lamps. The luminaire includes, all the
parts necessary for fixing and protecting the lamps, except the
lamps themselves. principles used in optical luminaire are
reflection, absorption, transmission and refraction.

Control Gear
The gears used in the lighting equipment are as follows:
Ballast: A current limiting device, to counter negative resistance
characteristics of any discharge lamps. In case of fluorescent
lamps, it aids the initial voltage build-up, required for starting.
Ignitors: These are used for starting high intensity Metal
Halide and Sodium vapour lamps.

This is the quotient of the illuminous flux incident on an element of the surface at a
point of surface containing the point, by the area of that element. The illuminance
provided by an installation affects both the performance of the tasks and the
appearance of the space.

Lux (lx): This is the illuminance produced by a luminous flux of one lux,
uniformly distributed over a surface area of one square metre. One lux is equal
to one lumen per square meter.

Luminous Efficacy (lm/W)

This is the ratio of luminous flux emitted by a lamp to the power consumed by the
lamp. It is a reflection of efficiency of energy conversion from electricity to light

Colour Rendering Index (RI)

Is a measure of the degree to which the colours of surfaces illuminated by a given
light source confirm to those of the same surfaces under a reference illuminant;
suitable allowance having been made for the state of Chromatic adaptation.

Lighting System Approach


Lamps (light source)


Lens or Diffuser

The Requirement


Work Surface

Lighting Quality

Illumination level.
Absence of glare.
Colour rendering index (CRI).

Luminous Performance Characteristics of

Commonly Used Luminaries
Lum / Watt


Color Rendering








fluorescent lamps


High pressure
mercury (HPMV)

Type of Lamp

Typical Application


Homes, restaurants,
general lighting,
emergency lighting


Good w.r.t.

Offices, shops, hospitals,




Very good

Hotels, shops, homes,






General lighting in
factories, garages, car
parking, flood lighting


Halogen lamps




Display, flood lighting,

stadium exhibition
grounds, construction


High pressure
sodium (HPSV)




General lighting in
factories, ware houses,
street lighting


Low pressure
sodium (LPSV)




Roadways, tunnels,
canals, street lighting


Recommended Illuminance Levels for

Various Tasks / Activities / Locations
The minimum illuminance for all non-working interiors, has been
Scale of
Illuminanc mentioned as 20 Lux (as per IS 3646). Therefore, the following scale of
illuminances is recommended.
20305075100150200300500750100015002000, Lux

Illuminance a range of illuminances is recommended for each type of interior or

activity intended of a single value of illuminance. Each range
consists of three successive steps of the recommended scale of
illuminances. For working interiors the middle value (R) of each
range represents the recommended service illuminance that would be
used unless one or more of the factors mentioned

Lighting Controls
On/off flip switches
Timer control & auto timed switch off
Presence detection
Luminary grouping / Group Switching
Day light linking, blinders, corrugated roof
Dimmers , Lighting voltage controllers
Photo sensors


Step-1 : Inventorise the Lighting System elements, &
transformers in the facility as per following typical format.
No. Location

Rating in
Lamp &


Use / Shifts as I
/ II / III shifts /

Energy savings in lighting System


Make maximum use of natural light (North roof/translucent

sheets/more windows and openings)
Switch off when not required
Modify lighting layout to meet the need
Select light colours for interiors
Provide timer switches / PV controls
Provide lighting Transformer to operate at reduced voltage
Install energy efficient lamps, luminaries and controls


Metal halide in place of Mercury and SVL lamps

CFT in place of incandescent lamps

Clean North roof glass, translucent sheet and luminaries regularly

Separate lighting Transformer

To isolate from power feeder, To avoid voltage fluctuation problem

10. Install Servo stabilizer if separate transformer is not feasible.

Electronic Ballast

Energy Efficient Lighting


Occupancy Sensors
Timed Based Control
Daylight Linked Control
Localized Switching

Downloadable materials from

Electrical system .pdf

Electrical motors.pdf
Best practices manual- motors
Best practices manual- transformers
Best Practices Manual- Lighting