BIOTECHNOLOGY

Anithra.S S
Natural Science

Biotechnology
• Biotechnology helps to meet
our basic needs.
• Food, clothing, shelter,
health and safety

Biotechnology
• Improvements by using
science
• Science helps in production
plants, animals and other
organisms

Biotechnology
• Also used in maintaining
a good environment that
promotes our well being

Definition
• Any technique that uses living
organisms or substances from those
organisms to make or modify a
product, to improve plants or
animals….

Cont.
• Or to develop
microorganisms for specific
uses.

Modern biotechnology
• DNA


RNA
Transcription

Protein
Translation

Genetic code determined for all 20
amino acids by Marshal Nirenberg and
Heinrich Matthaei and Gobind Khorana
– Nobel Prize – 1968
• 3 base sequence = codon

Agricultural View
• All of the applied science
based operations in
producing food, fiber, shelter,
and related products

Agricultural View
• Milk production
• New horticultural and
ornamental plants
• Wildlife, aquaculture, natural
resources and environmental
management

Multidisciplinary
• Involves many disciplines or
branches of learning
• Includes all areas of Life
Sciences

Organismic Biotech
• Study and use natural genetic
variations
• Cloning is an example of
organismic biotech

Cloning
• Process of producing a new
organism from cells or tissues
of existing organism.
• 1996 cloned sheep – “Dolly”
Edinburgh, Scotland

Molecular Biotech
• Changing the genetic makeup of an organism
• Altering the structure and
parts of cells
• Complex!

Molecular Biotech
• Uses genetic engineering,
molecular mapping and
similar processes

Transgenic
• Results of Gen. Eng. Are said
to be “transgenic”
• Genetic material in an
organism has been altered

Biotech examples
 Medicine
 Agriculture
 Environment
 Forestry
 Food and beverage processing

Greater Production
 Increases yields
 bST use in cows to produce
more milk
 Higher crop yields from
drought, disease & insect
resistant crops

Health Promoting
Foods

 Food with unique traits
 Some contain therapeutants
 Some designed with nutrient
enrichment

Easy preparation
 Flavr-Savr Tomato
 Reached the market in early
1990’s
 Engineered to have a longer
shelf life

Flavr-Savr
 No soft spots
 No rotten spots
 Tomato resists spoilage

What are the applications of biotechnology?
• Production of new and improved crops/foods,
industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals and livestock
• Diagnostics for detecting genetic diseases
• Gene therapy
• Vaccine development (recombinant vaccines)
• Environmental restoration
• Protection of endangered species
• Conservation biology
• Bioremediation
• Forensic applications
• Food processing (cheese, beer)

Transfer of new
genes into animal
organisms

Diagnostics

Cell
Culture

Monoclonal
Antibodies

Crime solving

Molecular
Biology

DNA
technology

Tracers

Genetic
Engineering

Banks of
DNA, RNA
and proteins
Complete
map of the
human
genome

Anti-cancer drugs

Culture of plants
from single cells

Synthesis
of new
proteins

Mass prodn. of
human proteins
Resource bank
for rare human
chemicals

New types of
plants and
animals
New types
of food

Cloning

New
antibiotics

Synthesis of
specific DNA
probes

Localisation of
genetic disorders

Gene therapy

Biotechnology Timeline
1750 BC

The Sumerians brew beer.

500 BC

Chinese use moldy soybean
curds as an antibiotic to treat
boils

1590

Janssen invents the microscope

1675

Leeuwenhoek discovers cells
(bacteria, red blood cells)

1830

Proteins are discovered

1833

The first enzymes are isolated

1855

The Eschirium coli bacterium
is discovered

Biotechnology Timeline
1859

Charles Darwin publishes On
the Origin of Species

1864

Louis Pasteur shows all living
things are produced by other
living things

1865

The age of genetics begins

1902

Walter Sutton coins the term
‘gene’ - proposed that
chromosomes carry genes

Biotechnology Timeline
1910

Chromosomal theory of
inheritance proved

1928

Fleming discovers antibiotic
properties of certain molds

1941

George Beadle and Edward Tatum propose
that one gene makes one protein

1949

Sickle cell anaemia demonstrated to be
molecular disease

Biotechnology Timeline
1952

The ‘Waring Blender’
experiment

1953
unravelled

The double helix is

1967

The genetic code is cracked

1973

Recombinant DNA
technology begins

1975

First international conference
on recombinant DNA
technology

Biotechnology Timeline
1975

DNA sequencing discovered

1975

Monoclonal antibody
technology introduced

1978

Genentech Inc. established

1978

Genentech use genetic engineering to produce
human insulin in E.coli - 1980 IPO of $89

1978

Kary Mullis discovers PCR

Biotechnology Timeline
1989

The Human Genome Project begins

1990

First use of gene therapy

1990

First product of recombinant
DNA technology introduced
into US food chain

1993

FDA announces that
transgenic food is safe

1994

The FLAVRSAVR tomato first genetically engineered
whole food

Biotechnology Timeline
1996

First mammal cloned from adult
cells

1990s

First conviction using genetic
fingerprinting

1996

Development of Affymetrix
GeneChip

1997

First artificial chromosome

History of Biotechnology
1998

Human embryonic stem cells
grown

1999

Celera announces completion
of Drosophilia genome
sequence

2000

90% of Human Genome
sequence published on web

2001

Human genome project
complete

THANK YOU

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