Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 37

Fans and Blowers

Difference between fans, blowers


and compressors
As per ASME the specific pressure, i.e, the ratio
of the discharge pressure over the suction
pressure is used for defining the fans, blowers
and compressors as highlighted below :
Equipment
Fans
Blowers
Compressors

Specific Ratio

Pressure rise (mmWc)

Up to 1.11

1136

1.11 to 1.20

1136 2066

more than 1.20

Fan types

Centrifugal fan

Axial fan

Centrifugal Fan: Types

Paddle Blade
(Radial blade)

Forward Curved
(Multi vane)

Backward Curved

Fan Types and Efficiencies


Fan Efficiencies
Type of fan
Centrifugal Fan
Airfoil, backward curved/inclined

79-83

Modified radial

72-79

Radial

69-75

Pressure blower

58-68

Forward curved
Axial fan
Van-axial

60-65

Tube-axial

67-72

Propeller

45-50

78-85

Fan Static Pressure and Power


Requirements for Different Fans

Types of Fans, Characteristics, and Typical Applications


Centrifugal Fans

Axial-flow Fans

Characteristics

Typical
Applications

Radial

High pressure,
medium flow,
efficiency close to
tube-axial fans,
power increases
continuously

Various
industrial
applications,
suitable for
dust laden,
moist air/gases

Propeller

Forwardcurved
blades

Medium pressure,
high flow, dip in
pressure curve,
efficiency higher
than radial fans,
power rises
continuously

Low pressure
HVAC,
packaged
units, suitable
for clean and
dust laden air /
gases

Medium pressure,
high flow, higher
efficiency than
Tube-axial propeller type, dip
in pressure-flow
curve before peak
pressure point.

HVAC, drying
ovens, exhaust
systems

High pressure,
high flow, high
Backward efficiency, power
reduces as flow
curved
increases beyond
blades
point of highest
efficiency

HVAC, various
industrial
applications,
forced draft
fans, etc.

High pressure,
medium flow, dip
in pressure-flow
Vane-axial curve, use of
guide vanes
improves
efficiency

High pressure
applications
including HVAC
systems,
exhausts

Same as
backward curved
type, highest
efficiency

Same as
backward
curved, but for
clean air
applications

Type

Airfoil
type

Type

Characteristics

Typical
Applications

Low pressure,
high flow, low
efficiency, peak
efficiency close to
point of free air
delivery (zero
static pressure)

Air-circulation,
ventilation,
exhaust

System characteristic
curve

Fan Characteristics

System characteristics and


Fan curves

Fan Laws
Flow ? Speed

Q1 N 1

Q2 N 2

Pressure ? (Speed)2

SP1 N 1

SP 2 N 2

Varying the RPM by 10% Varying the RPM by 10%


decreases or increases air decreases or increases the
delivery by 10%.
static pressure by 19%.

Power ? (Speed)3

kW 1 N 1

kW 2 N 2

Varying the RPM by 10%


decreases or increases the
power requirement by
27%.

Where Q flow, SP Static Pressure, kW Power and N speed (RPM)

Fan Design and Selection


Criteria
Air flow depends upon requirement such as
heat transfer rates, combustion air, flue gas
quantity etc.
System pressure depends upon pressure
drop across length, bends, contractions,
expansions, branch lines, bag filters,
process pressure etc.
In practice, large safety margins ( 20% on
volume and 30% on head) are given
resulting in oversized fans which operate
well below their design value- low efficiency

Safety Margin
The choice of safety margin also affects the efficient operation of the fan. In all
cases where the fan requirement is linked to the process/other equipment, the
safety margin is to be decided, based on the discussions with the process
equipment supplier.
In general, the safety margin can be 5 % over the maximum requirement on
flow rate.
In the case of boilers, the induced draft (ID) fan can be designed with a safety
margin of 20 % on volume and 30 % on head.
The forced draft (FD) fans and primary air (PA) fans do not require any safety
margins. However, safety margins of 10 % on volume and 20 % on pressure
are maintained for FD and PA fans.

System Resistance and Pressure Drop


The system resistance has a major role in determining the performance and
efficiency of a fan. The system resistance also changes depending on the
process.
Hence, the system resistance has to be periodically checked, more so when
modifications are introduced and action taken accordingly, for efficient
operation of the fan.
System resistance in the application of centrifugal fan is the resistance offered
by all the process equipment and duct line connected to the inlet of the fan as
well as at the out let of the fan, usually stacks.

Pressure Drop Across Various Equipment

Fan System Curve


System Resistance

Total pressure
drop

Curve

Operating Point

240

mmWc

ID Fan Characteristic
Curve
30,000 M3/hr
Flow rate of Flue gases

Flow Control Strategies


Normally, fan is designed for operating at
constant speed
Practically, there may be need for increase
in flow or decrease in flow. Various
strategies are

Damper controls
Pulley change
Inlet guide vanes,
Variable speed drives
Series and parallel operation

Pulley Change
Fan speed can be increased or decreased with
change in drive pulley or driven pulley

8
1470 RPM

6
1470 RPM

10

26 kW

1181 RPM

10
882RPM

14 kW

Damper Control
Dampers provide means for changing volume by
adding or removing system resistance
Dampers can be located at inlet or outlet; Outlet
damper control more common
Dampers provide only limited adjustment and are
not energy efficient
For systems requiring frequent flow control,
damper control may not be suitable

Inlet Guide Vanes


Guide vanes changes the angle at which air is
presented to the fan blades which in turn changes
the fan characteristics
Guide vanes suitable for flow reduction from 100
% flow to 80% flow. Below 80% flow, energy
efficiency drops sharply

Variable Speed Drives


Provide infinite variations in speed control
Fans laws are applicable: power input changes as
the cube of the flow
Economical for system with frequent flow
variations
For assessing power consumption, efficiency of
control system should be taken in account

Flow control
Damper - Most Popular
Variable Speed Drive
Recirculation
Damper

100

Power

VFC

75
50

VFD

25

Ideal

25

50

Flow

75

100

Series and Parallel operation


Parallel operation
Two fans operating in parallel ideally will result in
doubling of flow at free delivery
Higher the system resistance, less increase in
flow with parallel fan operation

Series operation
Two fans operating in series ideally will result in
doubling of static pressure at given flow
Higher the system resistance, better the result

Figure 5.13 Series and Parallel Operation

Fans Performance Assessment


Static pressure
Potential energy put into the system by the fan

Velocity pressure
Pressure arising from air flowing through the
duct. This is used to calculate velocity

Total pressure
Static pressure + velocity pressure
Total pressure remains constant unlike static and
velocity pressure

Gas Density ( )

Velocity v, m/s =

273 x 1.293
273 t oC

Cp x

2 9.81 p

Volumetric flow (Q), m3/s = Velocity, m/s x Area(m2/s)

Volume in m3 / sec * p (total pressure ) in mmWC


Fan Mechanical Efficiency (mechanical ), %
x 100
102 * power input to fan shaft in kW

Volume in m3 / sec * p ( static pressure ) in mmWC


Fan Static Efficiency ( static), %
x 100
102 * power input to fan shaft in kW

Example
A boiler exhaust gas has the following composition on dry basis is
CO2 - 24.7%, O2 5.1%, CO 0.1%, N2 70.1 %.
The static pressure and temperature measured in the duct are
-655 mmWC and 316 0C.
The velocity pressure measured with a pitot tube is 16.39
mmWC.
The atmospheric pressure at the site is 10334 mmWC.
The pitot tube constant is 0.85. If the area of the duct is 8.3 m 2.
Calculate the volumetric flow rate in m3/hr.

Solution

Example
The following is a typical report on measurements taken and calculations made for a
double inlet fan in a palletizing plant.
(a) Design Parameters:
Volume
Static Pressure

=
=

292 m3/sec.
609.6 mmwc

=
=

32oC
740 RPM

(b) Measurements:
Temperature
Speed

Inlet
Damper
Position
%

Suction
Pressure
(-) mmwc

Outlet
Pressure
(+) mmwc

80%

ONE SIDE
25, 22, 20
Average=22.33

455, 462,
480,478
Avg.=468.75

Measured
Velocity
Pressure ( p),
mmwc

459, 464, 473


479, 480, 470
Avg.=470.83

Amps
(I)

Power
Consumption
(kW)

166.6

220

2127 KW

Average = 70

ANOTHER
SIDE
15, 18, 23, 21
Average=19.25

Volume
M3/Sec.

Average = 70

c) (P1) = Power input to the motor (kW)

3 x V x I x Cos
1000
= 3 x 6600 x 220 x 0.9
1000
= 2263 kW

d) P = Power input to the fan shaft


= Power input to the motor (kW) x Efficiency of motor (%) at the
operating load x transmission efficiency
Motor efficiency = 0.94
P = 2263 x 0.94 x 1 (as motor was direct coupled)
= 2127 kW

e)

Fan Efficiency %
= Volume in m3 / Sec x total pressure in mmwc
(a) x Power input to the shaft in (kW)
Where 102 is a conversion constant
For double inlet fan,
The total Volume of air,m3 / Sec = 166.6 x 2 = 333.2
Total static pressure, mmwc
( p Static ,across the fan)
Fan Efficiency
Static Fan Efficiency

= 468.75- (-22.33) = 491


= 333.2 x 491 x 100
102 x 2127
= 75%

Energy Saving Opportunities


Avoid unnecessary demand- excess air reduction, idle running, arresting
leaks
Match fan capacity to demand downsizing, pulley change, VSD, impeller
de-rating
Reduce pressure drops remove redundant drops, modify ducts with
minimum bends
Drive system- direct drive, V belt by Flat belt, two speed motors
Replace with energy efficient fan, impeller
Change to hallow FRP impeller
Inlet guide vane in place of discharge damper control
Cooling tower /air cooler fan pitch change/VFD
Cleaning of fins of Air fin coolers to increase efficiency of heat removal
Damaged fins of fin fan coolers can be replaced.
Reducing the load of downstream exchangers especially cooling towers
because of good operation of fin fan coolers
Improvement in heat transfer due to reduction of excess air/ air ingress in
APH/Eco systems

THANK YOU