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SIGTRAN protocol

1.0

Objectives
Upon

completion of this course,you will be able to:

SIGTRAN application in R4
network

SIGTRAN protocol structure and


message introduction

SIGTRAN signaling flow

Course Content
Chap1 overview
Chap2 SCTP protocol
Chap3 M3UA protocol introduction
Chap4 SIGTRAN application

SIGTRAN definition

Two layers of protocols are included in the

SIGTRAN protocol stack, i.e., transmission protocols


(such as SCTP/IP) and adaptation protocols (such as
M3UA, IUA).

Introduction of M3UA
SEP

ISUP
MTP3
MTP2
MTP1

SS7

PSTN

SIGTRAN

SG

IP

NIF
MTP3

M3UA

MTP2

SCTP

MTP1

IP

MGC

ISUP
M3UA
SCTP
IP

Course Content
Chap1 overview
Chap2 SCTP protocol
Chap3 M3UA protocol introduction
Chap4 SIGTRAN application

Chap2 SCTP protocol


1.1

overview

1.2 SCTP terms

1.3 SCTP function

1.4 SCTP message structure

SCTP protocol introduction


Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)

is a reliable transport protocol that operates


over a potentially unreliable connectionless
packet service such as IP.
SCTP is designed to transfer SCN narrowband

signaling over IP network.


Compared with the TCP, SCTP features higher
reliability, real-time and multi-homed
performance.

SCTP features
Support for orderly/disorderly transmission of

subscriber datagram in the flow.


Multiple streams can be established in one
association, and the data in the streams do not
interfere with each other.
Multi-home can be supported at one end or both
ends of the association to improve the reliability
of the link.
The association must pass the COOKIE
authentication before establishment to
guarantee the security.

Chap2 SCTP protocol


1.1

overview

1.2 SCTP terms

1.3 SCTP function

1.4 SCTP message


structure

SCTP transmission address


A transport address of Stream Control

Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is defined by the


combination of an IP address and an SCTP port
number.
SCTP port number is used for the identification of
the users at the same address, and it is identical
to that of TCP port number in the concept.

Host and endpoint

A Host is a computer, configured with one or multiple


IP addresses. It is a typical physical entity.

Endpoint is one of basic concepts of SCTP. An


endpoint is the logical sender/receiver of SCTP
packets. It is a typical logical entity.

Association and stream


SCTP
EndpointA

SCTP
EndpointB
SCTP
stream
(sigle
way)

IP/SCTP-port

SCTP
association IP/SCTP-port

TSN and SSN


TSN
Transmission Sequence Number (TSN) is a 32-bit

sequence number used internally by SCTP. One


TSN is attached to each chunk containing user
data to permit the receiving SCTP endpoint to
acknowledge its receipt and detect duplicate
deliveries. TSN is maintained on the basis of
association.

SSN
SSN is the acronym of Stream Sequence Number.

In each stream of an SCTP association, a 16-bit


sequence number is assigned to each data chunk
sent in the stream by the local end, in order to
ensure the sequenced transmission in the stream.
SSN is maintained on the basis of stream.

TSN and SSN


TSN is maintained on the basis of association.
For example: Endpoint A use two stream to connect

endpoint B. Now block A,B,C,D will be transmit, the


sequence of transmission is as following :block A use
stream1,block B use stream2, block C use stream3,
block D use stream4. And block5 is divided into D1 and
D2.
data

TSN

SSN

D1

D2

CWND and RWND


CWND: Congestion Window
An SCTP variable that limits the data, in

number of bytes, a sender can transmit to a


particular destination transport address
before receiving an acknowledgement. SCTP
is a sliding window protocol.
RWND: Receiver Window.
An SCTP variable that a data sender uses to

store the most recently calculated receiver


window of its peer, in number of bytes.

Chap2 SCTP protocol


1.1

overview

1.2 SCTP terms

1.3 SCTP function

1.4 SCTP message


structure

SCTP function
The functions of SCTP mainly include:
association startup and takedown
sequenced delivery within streams
user data fragmentation
acknowledgement and congestion avoidance
chunk bundling
packet validation
path management.

Chap2 SCTP protocol


1.1

overview

1.2 SCTP terms

1.3 SCTP function

1.4 SCTP message


structure

SCTP message
COMMON HEADER CHUNK

SCTP message type


Message Name

Description

DATA

The payload user data

INIT

This chunk is used to initiate a SCTP association between two endpoints.

INIT ACK

The INIT ACK chunk is used to acknowledge the initiation of an SCTP association.

SACK

This chunk is sent to the peer endpoint to acknowledge received DATA chunks and to inform the peer endpoint of gaps in the received
subsequences of DATA chunks.

HEARTBEAT

An endpoint should send this chunk to its peer endpoint to probe the reachability of a particular destination transport address defined
in the present association.

HEARTBEAT ACK

An endpoint should send this chunk to its peer endpoint as a response to a HEARTBEAT chunk.

ABORT

The ABORT chunk is sent to the peer of an association to close the association.

SHUTDOWN

An endpoint in an association MUST use this chunk to initiate a graceful close of the association with its peer.

SHUTDOWN ACK

This chunk MUST be used to acknowledge the receipt of the SHUTDOWN chunk at the completion of the shutdown process.

ERROR

An endpoint sends this chunk to its peer endpoint to notify it of certain error conditions.

COOKIE ECHO

This chunk is used only during the initialization of an association. It is sent by the initiator of an association to its peer to complete the
initialization process.

COOKIE ACK

It is used to acknowledge the receipt of a COOKIE ECHO chunk.

SHUTDOWN COMPLETE

This chunk is used to acknowledge the receipt of the SHUTDOWN ACK chunk at the completion of the shutdown process

Startup of association
The startup of SCTP association is a four-way handshake

process, which has four message interactions: INIT, INIT


ACK, COOKIE ECHO and COOKIE ACK

Termination of association
SCTP association can be terminated in two ways:

One is GRACEFUL close, the other is UNGRACEFUL


close.
Just as their names imply, the former means that
all data in queue by either endpoint is delivered to
the respective peers before the association is shut
down.
The latter means that the association is directly
aborted and the data is directly discarded.

Course Content
Chap1 overview
Chap2 SCTP protocol
Chap3 M3UA protocol introduction
Chap4 SIGTRAN application

Training.huawei.com

Chap3 M3UA protocol


introduction
3.1

overview

3.2

basic concept

3.3 M3UA message


structure

M3UA function
M3UA (MTP3 User Adaptation) protocol

supports the transport of any SS7 MTP3-User


signaling (e.g., ISUP and SCCP messages) over
IP using the services of the Stream Control
Transmission Protocol.
Also, provision is made for protocol elements
that enable a seamless operation of the MTP3User peers in the SS7 and IP domains. This
protocol would be used between a Signaling
Gateway (SG) and a Media Gateway Controller
(MGC) or IP-resident Database, or between two
IP-based applications.

M3UA protocol introduction


SS7

SEP

ISUP
MTP3

PSTN

MTP2
MTP1

SEP signal endpoint

SIGTRAN

SG

IP

NIF
MTP3

M3UA

MTP2

SCTP

MTP1

IP

SG signal gateway

MGC

ISUP
M3UA
SCTP
IP

MGC media control

M3UA protocol
introduction(continue)
RNC

ATM

IP

MGW

SERVER

RANAP

RANAP

SCCP

SCCP

MTP-3b

MTP-3b

M3UA

M3UA

SAAL

SAAL

SCTP

SCTP

ATM

ATM

IP

IP

M3UA protocol introduction


M3UA also can be used to transfer

signaling between two IPSP


MGC

User
M3UA
SCTP
IP

IP
MGC

User
M3UA
SCTP
IP

Chap3 M3UA protocol


introduction
3.1

overview

3.2

basic concept

3.3 M3UA message


structure

Basic concept
AS

A logical entity serving a specific Routing Key.


ASP

A process instance of an Application Server.


IPSP

A process instance of an IP-based application.

An IPSP is essentially the same as an ASP,


except that it uses M3UA in a point-to-point
fashion. Conceptually, an IPSP does not use
the services of a Signaling Gateway node.

Basic concept
M3UA link state transition
Asp Active/Asp Active Ack
M3UA_LINK_ACTIVE

M3UA_LINK_
INACTIVE

Asp Inactive/Asp Inactive Ack/


Asp Alt Notify

SCTP-RI

Asp Up or
Asp Up Ack

SCTP
CDI

Asp Down or
Asp Down Ack
or SCTP-RI
SCTP-CDI

M3UA_LINK_DOWN

M3UA backout successful/Sctp-CDI


M3UA establish successful

M3UA_LINK_
UNESTABLISH

Basic
concept
Relationship among M3UA Link, Linkset, Route and Entity

M3UA link set


SGP1
SGP2

SP

SGP3

ASP1

SG1

ASP2

SGP1

ASP3

MGC

SGP2
SGP3

SG2
M3UA route
M3UA entity

M3UA link
MTP link

Basic concept
M3UA route
The path from source entity to destination

entity is called a M3UA route.


One M3UA route corresponds to one M3UA
Linkset at the home terminal.

Basic concept
M3UA entity
The logical processing unit that accomplishes

some special functions, such as AS, SP or a


logic unit that only implements special
message transfer function, such as SG can be
classified as M3UA Entity. Each M3UA Entity is
identified by a unique signaling point code.
M3UA LOCAL ENTITY: The logical entity to

accomplish special function in local side.


M3UA DESTINATION ENTITY: The logic entity
to accomplish special function in peer side.

Chap3 M3UA protocol


introduction
3.1

overview

3.2

basic concept

3.3 M3UA message


structure

M3UA message structure


The general M3UA message format includes a

common message header followed by zero or more


variable length parameters.
The protocol messages for MTP3-User Adaptation require

a message structure, which contains a version, message


class, message type, message length, and message
contents.
Version(8)

Reserved(8)

Message Class(8) Message Type(8)

Message Length(32)
All the parameters contained in a message are defined in

a Tag Length-Value format as shown below.


Parameter Tag (16)

Parameter Length (16)

Parameter Value(32)

M3UA message introduction


Management messages
Transfer messages
SS7 Signaling Network Management

messages
ASP State Maintenance messages
ASP Traffic Maintenance messages

Establishment procedure
SGP

ASP
ASP UP
ASP UP ACK
AS INACTIVE NOTIFY
ASP ACTIVE
ASP ACTIVE ACK
AS ACTIVE NOTIFY

Data Transfer procedure


Determine the correct Destination Entity.
If the destination Entity is Accessible, then get

the Available route to that destination entity.


Get an Active Linkset belonging to this Route.
Determine an Active Link in the given Linkset.
Determine whether to complete the optional
fields of the DATA message.
Map the MTP-TRANSFER request primitive into
the Protocol Data field of a DATA message
Send the DATA message to the remote M3UA
peer at the SGP, over the chosen M3UA link.

MTP_TRANSFER primitive handling at ASP


SGP

ASP
MTP_TRANSFER
Choose the right
link and map
Transfer
primitive to
DATA message
DATA message

MTP_TRANSFER handling at
SGP

Release procedure
SGP

ASP
ASP INACTIVE
ASP INACTIVE ACK
AS PENDING NOTIFY
Pending Timer Expires
AS INACTIVE NOTIFY
ASP DOWN
ASP DOWN ACK
AS DOWN NOTIFY