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the right to full legal, social, and

economic equality

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e
l
p

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a
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freedom of speech
freedom of press
freedom of assembly
freedom from involuntary servitude
the right to vote
right to equality in public places

1.

2.

Oral presentation on either one of the


topics:
The Rise And Fall of Jim Crow Laws
Read the handouts and prepare for my
questions in next weeks class.
American civil rights movement

1. What are the most important


achievement of African-American Civil Rights
Movement?
2. What is MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT?
What is its significance?
3. What is the most noticeable achievement
of the Civil Rights Act of 1964?
4. Please translate the following words into
Chinese.
5. What is the most remarkable achievement
as a result of SELMA TO MONTGOMERY
MARCH?

1. What are the most important


achievement of African-American
Civil Rights Movement?
A: The most important achievements of AfricanAmerican civil rights movements have been the
post-Civil War constitutional amendments that
abolished slavery and established the citizenship
status of blacks and the judicial decisions and
legislation based on these amendments, notably
the Supreme CourtsBrownv.Board of Education of
Topekadecision of 1954, theCivil Rights Actof
1964, and theVoting Rights Actof 1965.

2. What is MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT? What


is its significance?
A:The initial phase of the black protest activity in
the post-Brownperiod began on December 1,
1955.Rosa Parksof Montgomery,Alabama,
refused to give up her seat to a white bus rider,
thereby defying a southern custom that required
blacks to give seats toward the front of buses to
whites. When she was jailed, a black community
boycott of the citys buses began.
Martin Luther King, Jr., who emerged as the
boycott movements most effective leader.

3. What is the most noticeable achievement


of the Civil Rights Act of 1964?

Kings linkage of black militancy and idealism


helped bring about passage of the Civil Rights
Act of 1964. This legislation outlawed
segregation in public facilities and racial
discrimination in employment and education. In
addition to blacks, women and other victims of
discrimination benefited from the act.

4. Please translate the following words into Chinese.


On March 7 anSCLCplanned march from Selma to the
state capitol in Montgomery ended almost before it began
at Pettus Bridge on the outskirts of Selma, when mounted
police using tear gas and wielding clubs attacked the
protesters. News accounts of Bloody Sunday brought
hundreds of civil rights sympathizers to Selma. Many
demonstrators were determined to mobilize another
march, andSNCCactivists challenged King to defy a court
order forbidding such marches. But reluctant to do
anything that would lessen public support for the voting
rights cause, King on March 9 turned back a second march
to the Pettus Bridge when it was blocked by the police.

5.

What is the most remarkable achievement


as a result of SELMA TO MONTGOMERY
MARCH?
Soon afterward, Congress passed the Voting
Rights Act of 1965, which greatly increased the
number of southern blacks able to register to
vote.

In 1865: the enactment of


the Thirteenth Amendment of the U.S.
Constitution.
In 1865-1866: Black Codes
In 1868: the Fourteenth Amendment
countered these "black codes"
During the reconstruction era:
Civil Rights Act of 1964(under Title 42,
Chapter 21 of the United States Code).

Section 1.
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to
the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the
state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law
which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the
United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty,
or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person
within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
The Fourteenth Amendment addresses many aspects of citizenship
and the rights of citizens. The most commonly used -- and
frequently litigated -- phrase in the amendment is"
equal protection of the laws", which figures prominently in a wide
variety of landmark cases, including Brown v. Board of Education
(racial discrimination), Roe v. Wade (reproductive rights),
Bush v. Gore (election recounts), Reed v. Reed (gender
discrimination),and University of California v. Bakke (racial quotas in
education).

Abodyoflaws,statutes,andrulesena
ctedbysouthernstatesimmediatelyaf
tertheCivilWartoregaincontrolover
thefreedslaves,maintainwhitesuprem
acy,andensurethecontinuedsupplyo
fcheaplabor. (Jim Crow law is among
one of them.)

Section 1.
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude,
except as a punishment for crime whereof the
party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist
within the United States, or any place subject to
their jurisdiction.
Section 2.
Congress shall have power to enforce this article
by appropriate legislation.

Discrimination based on "race, color, religion, or national


origin" in public establishments that have a connection to
interstate commerce or are supported by the state is
prohibited.Public establishments include places of public
accommodation (e.g., hotels, motels, and trailer parks),
restaurants, gas stations, bars, taverns, and places of
entertainment in general. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and
subsequent legislation also declared a strong legislative
policy against discrimination in public schools and colleges
which aided in desegregation. Title VI of the Civil Rights
Act prohibits discrimination in federally funded programs.
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act prohibits employment
discrimination where the employer is engaged in interstate
commerce.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Declaration of Independence (1776)


Articles of Confederation (1781)
The Constitution
Amendments (27)
Bill of Rights
Civil Rights Acts
Civil rights in the United States
Supplementary Knowledge: U.S. Court
System

Declaration of Independence (1776)

Articles of Confederation (1781)

The Constitution (1787)

Bill of Rights (1791)

Amendments

We hold these Truths to be self-evident,


mainly
by Thomas
Jefferson
that alldrafted
Men are created
equal, that
they are(June 11 28,
endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable
1778)
Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and
national
symbol
of liberty to secure these
the pursuit
of happinessThat
Rights,
are instituted
among
Men,
July
4th Governments
Independence
Day, the
date
the Congress
deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the
approved
textany Form of Government
Governed, the
that final
whenever
becomes
destructive
of these ends,
it isBritish
the Right
of
first
13 states
independent
from
colony
the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute
innew
National
Archives
1952 on such
Government,
layingsince
its Foundation
Principles, and organizing its Powers in such
Form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect
their Safety and happiness.
----from Declaration of Independence
"one of the best-known sentences in
the English language"

Q: how is the Declaration of


Independence connected with the
U.S. Constitution?
Click!
A: They work together!

Q: What are the problems with the Articles


of Confederation?
Click!

first Constitution of U.S. ( )


Lasted only ten years
Not a framework for national government
No president, no judiciary
league of friendship: no power of national taxation, to
control trade, could not enforce legislation (endowed
with individual states)

why? problems from the previous one


a government with enough power to act on a national
level---great concern!!! (how to)
it may be amended (27 times)
supreme law: limit governments power, ensure peoples
rights and liberty
constitutions of each state
? 200+ years ago, out of date????
itations on
lim
e
th
ith
w
ls
a
e
d
erely
A: the Constitution m
r
powers. The need fo
entury to
c
m
o
fr
e
g
n
a
h
c
t
o
n
does
limitations on power
nturyy..

We the people of the United States, in


order to form a more perfect union,

establish justice, insure domestic


tranquility, provide for the common

defense, promote the general welfare,

and secure the blessings of liberty to


ourselves and our posterity, do ordain
and establish this Constitution for the
United States of America.

Legislative
Executive
Judicial
--Articles 1,2, and
3

federal and
State relations
--Articles 4,5,and 6

Procedures for
making
amendments
--Article 7

Bill of Rights
(1791)

Safeguards of liberty (Amendments 1, 2, 3)


Safeguards of justice (Amendments 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)
Unenumerated rights and reserved powers
(Amendments 9, 10)
Governmental authority (Amendments 11, 16,
18, 21)
Safeguards of civil rights (Amendments 13, 14,
15, 19, 23, 24, 26)
Government processes and procedures
(Amendments 12, 17, 20, 22, 25, 27)

1. Freedom of Speech, Press, Religion and


Petition
2. Right to keep and bear arms
3. Conditions for quarters of soldiers
4. Right of search and seizure regulated
5. Provisions concerning prosecution
6. Right to a speedy trial, witnesses, etc.
7. Right to a trial by jury
8. Excessive bail, cruel punishment
9. Rule of construction of Constitution
10.Rights of the States under Constitution

Civil Rights Act of 1866, extending the rights of emancipated


slaves
Civil Rights Act of 1871, also known as the Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
Act, prohibits ethnic violence against blacks
Civil Rights Act of 1957, establishing the Civil Rights
Commission
Civil Rights Act of 1960, establishing federal inspection of
local voter registration polls
Civil Rights Act of 1964, prohibiting discrimination based on
race, color, religion, sex, and national origin by federal and
state governments as well as some public places
Civil Rights Act of 1968, also known as the Fair Housing Act
Civil Rights Act of 1991, providing the right to trial by jury on
discrimination claims and introducing the possibility of
emotional distress damages, while limiting the amount that a
jury could award

Equality protection

Racial equality
Gender equality
Disability

Freedom protection

Voting rights
12th Amendment

Section
1.The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not
Racial
equality
be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account
th, 15
14
of race,
color,
orthprevious
condition ofCivil
servitude.
Amendment,
Rights Act of
th
--Section
1,
15
Amendment
1964(CRA)
Section 1.All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and
subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and
of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any
law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the
United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or

property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its

jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

--Section 1, 14th Amendment

--Section 1, 14th Amendment

Gender equality
19th Amendment; Civil Rights Act of 1964(CRA)

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or
abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.
--19th Amendment

Disability
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990(ADA)

Freedom
Freedom
Freedom
Freedom

of
of
of
of

religion
expression
assembly
association

First
Amendment

Article 1, Section 2 of the Constitution

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof


may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of
Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in
the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an
Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an
Elector.
--Article 1, Section 2 of the Constitution

--Article 1, Section 2 of the Constitution

Roe v. Wade

Facts/Syllabus: Roe, Hallford, the Does


Synopsis of rule of law:
Courts ruling: district courts ruling
Supreme Courts
ruling
Opinions:

Choose a side, and prepare a fiveminute individual speech to defend


your argument.

Plessy v. Ferguson

Videos:
Inside the Supreme Court of the United
States
A file:
The U.S. Judicial branch