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MAE 1202: AEROSPACE PRACTICUM

Lecture 1: Introduction and Course Overview

January 7, 2013
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department
Florida Institute of Technology
D. R. Kirk

LECTURE OUTLINE
Syllabus
Course Structure
Topics Covered
Advice for MAE 1202 and Florida Tech
Summary

Course Website
http://my.fit.edu/~dkirk/1202/index.html

MAE 1202: COURSE STRCUTURE

Monday lecture to introduce elementary design concepts related to:


1. Aerodynamics (Chapters 4 and 5)
2. Aircraft performance (Chapter 6)
3. Aerospace structures (Chapter 10)
4. Propulsion: Air-breathing, rocket and spacecraft (Chapter 9)

Bi-weekly laboratory sessions


Tuesday and Thursday or Wednesday and Friday, Room 228/229 EC
Attendance is taken at every session free 5% of your grade

Introduce computational engineering tools


MS Word, MS Excel, MATLAB, and Computer Aided Design (CAD) Software

Introduction to machine shop

Introduction and tour of research laboratories


Wind tunnel, shock tunnel, structures, heat transfer, etc.

Team project to design, analyze, and build aerospace device


5-8 students per team
Design competition held during final week of class

READING AND HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENTS


Reading Assignment:
For January 14, 2013 lecture: Chapter 4, Sections 4.1 - 4.14
Lecture-Based Homework Assignment:
Problems: None
Due Date:
Turn in hard copy of homework
Review and be familiar with textbook examples in Chapter 4
Note: Answers to all homework problems are provided grading is
dependent on your approach and procedure to arrive at a solution
Comment on your answers just a phrase or two
Laboratory Homework Assignment #1:
Due Date: Friday, January 18, 2013 by 11 AM
Details in Thurs./Fri. laboratory session

LABORATORY INSTRUCTORS
Section

Date and Time

Room

Tues. and Thurs.: 9:30-10:45 AM

229 EC

Tues. and Thurs.: 2:00-3:15 PM

229 EC

Wed. and Fri.: 8:30-9:45 AM

229 EC

Tues. and Thurs.: 11:00-12:15 AM

229 EC

Tues. and Thurs.: 8:00-9:15 AM

228 EC

Tues. and Thurs.: 8:00-9:15 AM

229 EC

Teaching Assistant
Joel Faure
jfaure@my.fit.edu
Joel Faure
Darren Levine
dlevine2008@my.fit.edu
Darren Levine
Sunil Chintalapati
chintals@fit.edu
Sunil Chintalapati

GSA = Graduate Student Assistant


Paid to go to grad school
Work on cutting edge research
Also teach and continue to take classes
Are available to help with any homework or laboratory project
Make sure they know who you are become their friends
Learn about their research
Learn from their successes and mistakes as undergraduates
Ask them questions about how to be successful at Florida Tech

LECTURE TOPICS OVERVIEW


Aerodynamics
Vehicle Performance
Propulsion
Structures

PRICE OF OIL vs. AIRLINE STOCK PRICE


Crude Oil (OIS)

American Airlines (AMR, AAMRQ)

FUEL COST DRIVERS


Fuel now largest component of operating costs
Carriers turning to fuel-saving measures that once seemed hardly worthwhile
Upswept wingtips to increase range and improve aerodynamics
Taxi to and from runway on one engine to save fuel
Does it make sense to actually fly slower?
Do you polish an airplane or paint the airplane?
Airlines have new program to wash their aircraft/engines
Other cost saving measures
1st and 2nd bag check fee (and many others new fees)
Remove all pillows from MD-80s
Think about bankruptcies and mergers over last several years (Delta,
American, Continental, United, America West, ATA, etc.)

CHEMICAL EMISSIONS

AIRCRAFT NOISE

AIRCRAFT AND ENGINE NOISE

LECTURE TOPICS: AERODYNAMICS


Why are airplanes, wings, rockets, etc. shaped way they are?
What is relevance of their shape?
How do we design such shapes and what is impact of that design?
Boeing 777
SR-71
U-2

F-15

HOW DOES AN AIRFOIL GENERATE LIFT?

Lift due to imbalance of pressure distribution over top and bottom surfaces of
wing
If pressure on top is lower than pressure on bottom surface, lift is generated
Why is pressure lower on top surface?

We can understand answer from basic physics:


Continuity (Mass Conservation)
Newtons 2nd law (Euler or Bernoulli Equation)

COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT: BOEING SERIES


707

757

727

767

737

747

What is same?
What is different?
Why?

777

787

BOEING 747-110 (1973) vs. 747-800 (2009)

Airbus Advanced Concept Aircraft

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/travel/article-1315836/Boeing-takes-Airbus-invisible-planes-supersonic-scramjet-engines.html
16

EXAMPLE: SLATS AND FLAPS

EXAMPLE: SWEPT WINGS


All modern high-speed aircraft have swept wings: WHY?

DRONES IN THE NEWS

DO YOU NEED WINGS TO FLY?


"At some point I collided with one of the Skyhawks, at first I didn't realize it. I felt a big
strike, and I thought we passed through the jet stream of one of the other aircraft. Before I
could react, I saw the big fireball created by the explosion of the Skyhawk.

SUPERSONIC FLOW
Can you fly faster than the speed of sound, HOW?
What can happen in supersonic flows?
Supersonic flows (M > 1) are qualitatively and quantitatively different
from subsonic flows (M < 1)

OTHER APPLICATIONS OF AERODYNAMICS

ROCKET VS. AIR-BREATHING PROPULSION

Take mass stored in a vehicle and


Capture mass from environment and set
throw it backwards
that mass in motion backwards
Use reaction force to propel
Use reaction force to propel vehicle
vehicle
Only fuel is carried onboard
All fuel and oxidizer are carried
Oxidizer (air) is harvested
onboard the vehicle
continuously during flight
Rocket and Mission Analysis
Air-Breathing Engines (MAE: 4261)
(MAE: 4262)

CROSS-SECTIONAL EXAMPLE: GE 90-115B


Compressor

Nozzle

Fan

Turbine

Inlet

Combustor

Why does this engine look the way that it does?


How does this engine push an airplane forward, i.e. how does it generate thrust?
What are major components and design parameters?

http://www.geae.com/education/genx/theatre/genx_theatre_go.html

TRENDS TO BIGGER ENGINES

1958: Boeing 707, United States' first commercial jet airliner

Similar to PWJT4A: T=17,000 lbf, ~ 1

1995: Boeing 777, FAA Certified

PW4000-112: T=100,000 lbf , ~ 6

COMMERCIAL VS. MILITARY ENGINES


(APPROX. SAME THRUST, APPROX. CORRECT RELATIVE SIZES)

GE CFM56 for Boeing 737


T~30,000 lbf, Bypass Ratio, ~ 5

P&W 119 for F- 22, T~35,000 lbf, Bypass Ratio ~ 0.3

HOW ARE ROCKET NOZZLES SHAPPED?

ConvergingDiverging shape is
ONLY way to
accelerate a sub-sonic
flow to super sonic
velocities!

LECTURE TOPICS: AIRPLANE PERFORMANCE


747

What drove this design?


Fuel Cost
787

Examine behavior of entire airplane


How fast can this airplane fly (Range)?
How far can this airplane fly on a single tank of fuel (Endurance)?
How long can this airplane stay in the air on a single tank of fuel?
How fast and how high can it climb?
How well can the airplane maneuver?
How does the airplane perform?

EXAMPLE: VIRGIN ATLANTIC GLOBALFLYER


World record for first non-stop solo circumnavigation around the world

Wing Span: 114 ft


Wing Area: 400 ft2
Length: 44.1 ft
Height: 13.3 ft
Gross Weight: 22,000 lbs
Empty Weight: 3,350 lbs

LECTURE TOPICS: AEROSPACE STRUCTURES


Structural analysis plays a key role in aerospace design
Just as important as aerodynamics, propulsion, flight dynamics and control
Vast resources (money, time, etc.) dedicated to reducing weight and cost of
aerospace structures
Aerospace structures operate in unique (often very harsh) environments
Rockets: High G-loading and dynamic pressure (yet want lightweight and thin
tanks to reduce mass penalty)
Gas turbine engine blades: Operate above the melting temperature of material!
Structure must be cooled

EXAMPLE: SPACE STATION TRUSS STRUCTURE

In a weightless environment load calculations become easier?


No. Truss system being built for International Space Station must withstand both
loading from launch and unusual forces and environment found on orbit.

EXAMPLE: AIRCRAFT WAKE TURBULENCE

STRUCTURAL FAILURE EXAMPLE?

Aug. 5 The Nov. 12 2001 crash of


American Airlines Flight 587 was the world's
worst single-plane crash in a decade
Airbus: pilot error as one possible cause
AA: Airbus A300-600's composites, the
material that makes up the tail, could have
been the culprit

In theory, the airplane should be able to


withstand a sudden yaw, yet it is well known
that severe and dangerous horizontal gust
loads can be imposed on vertical stabilizers
under some flight conditions. That is why they
have computer monitoring of airspeed so as to
reduce the limit of rudder movement, on
modern airliners: because structural limits of
the vertical stabilizer can be exceeded if the
rudder throw is too great when accompanied
by a severe side loading

LABORATORY TOPICS OVERVIEW

ENGINEERING TOOLS: MS WORD AND EXCEL

MS Word (1 Lecture)
Introduction of basic and higher order functions
Automatic generation of table of contents, lists of figures and tables
Spell and grammar check
Headers and footnotes

Important to produce professional quality engineering documents


MS Word facilitates document generation, but quality of technical writing is still
up to you

MS Excel (1 Lecture)
Introduction to spreadsheet analysis
Introduction of basic and higher order functions
Freezing rows and columns, goal seek, generating plots

ENGINEERING TOOLS: MATLAB


Overview of Matlab: 4 Lectures
What is it and what can it do?
Matlab is a mathematical software that can be used to solve a
wide range of engineering problems
Write your own programs and utilizes many built-in functions
Sum, mean, pi, sin, std, max, factorial, etc.
Very powerful for manipulation of matrices, linear algebra
Data analysis and plotting

ENGINEERING TOOLS: CAD


One of most sophisticated and powerful solid modeling packages
available
Provide foundation on how to use package over course of ~10
laboratory sessions

Create models of relatively complex parts and assemblies


Know how to produce related detailed engineering drawings
Understand terminology use in CAD
Understand design philosophy and methods embedded in CAD

CADPROFESSIONAL EXAMPLES

PREVIOUS CAD FIT PROJECTS

PREVIOUS CAD FIT PROJECTS

EXAMPLES

MACHINE SHOP OVERVIEW

Useful throughout time at FIT, especially Junior and Senior Design Projects
Knowledge of how various components are made design process
Basic Machine Shop Training (6 sessions)
Shop Safety
Drawing and Manufacturing
Precision Instruments
Cutting Tools, Milling Machine, Saws, Welding, Lathe, Hand Tools, etc.

Example: Inside Micrometer

Example: Outside Micrometer

LABORATORIES OVERVIEW
A wind tunnel is a ground-based experimental facility used to produce air
flow to study flight of airplanes, missiles, space vehicles, etc.
Many different types of wind tunnels
Subsonic, transonic, supersonic, hypersonic

Excellent Wind Tunnel Site: http://vonkarman.stanford.edu/tsd/pbstuff/tunnel/

TEAM PROJECT
GOAL: Launch and recover student designed,
Built, and tested rockets to a given altitude

Excellent preparation for junior and senior design


projects and Pioneer Cup Participation

FREE ADVICE

STATISTICS AND COMMENTS

Aerospace Engineering largest major, in largest department, in largest college at


Florida Tech (lots of leverage)

86 students currently enrolled in 2013 MAE 1202: Aerospace Practicum

100 students initially enrolled in 2012 MAE 1201: Introduction to Aerospace


Engineering
14 % loss in enrollment
2010: 93 in Intro, 74 started Practicum (20% loss)
2007: 105 in Intro, 91 started Practicum (13% loss)

Last year Aerospace Practicum had 72 students


30% As
45% Bs
2 Fs

THE GOOD ABOUT MAE 1202

Class is exceptionally difficult to fail or even get a D


Nonetheless it happens, however never because of academic inability

Doing all homework, participating in team project, attending every lab, and taking
every concept quiz will probably get you a B

Team project turns out to be a lot of fun


You will be graded by your teammates for project
Projects are well-funded

Take advantage of office hours and many evening review sessions

Exams follow closely from lecture concepts, homework and text reading
Exams are open book and notes
Exams are rather lengthy and challenging

Foundation for many course at Florida Tech

THE BAD ABOUT MAE 1202


Foundation for many course at Florida Tech
Course is listed as 2 credits it will feel like 4
Lots of lecture homework (~8 problems per week)
Lots of new fundamental concepts
Laboratory assignment every week
New engineering tools (MATLAB and Pro|Engineer) to learn
Team project is a lot of work
You probably will like aspects of the course better than others
Your team may work well together or you may not work together
There will undoubtedly be complaining
Complain to me never to your Teaching Assistants
HOWEVER: If you dedicate yourself to doing all this work:
You will be extremely prepared for all other aerospace courses at FIT
You will be among the most prepared and knowledgeable sophomores

OTHER ADVICE

College is 3 years long, not 4


When you apply for grad school or a job, your transcript will only cover your first 7
semesters!
Job offers or a grad school plan in place before your last semester is over

The difference between a 3.01 GPA and a 2.98 GPA is much larger than the difference
between a 3.2 and 3.5 GPA
3.01 GPA grad school, completely paid for = yes!
2.98 GPA grad school = bye bye, good luck not finding a job!

It is almost impossible to dig out of a big GPA hole

Pay attention to 4 credit courses


Big hitters in your GPA
Be well rounded, but balanced we dont need engineering dorks

Setting a good precedent early is important without being a suck-up


Good student As I grade this exam, let me find where to give her points
Bad student As I grade this exam, let me find where she went wrong

COURSE SUMMARY
MAE 1202: Aerospace Practicum offers exciting mix:
Interesting lectures
Aerodynamics, propulsion, flight performance, structures
Content will extend through FIT, grad school, career
Introduction to modern and highly useful engineering tools
MS Word, MS Excel, Matlab, Pro|Engineer Wildfire
Tour of machine shop and research laboratories
Design Project
Opportunity to work in teams on aerospace related project
Apply theoretical results with engineering tools
Design, analyze, and build

ONLINE REFERENCES

http://www.aircraftenginedesign.com/enginepics.html
http://www.pratt-whitney.com/
http://www.geae.com/
http://www.geae.com/education/engines101/
http://www.ueet.nasa.gov/StudentSite/engines.html
http://www.aeromuseum.org/Education/Lessons/HowPlaneFly/HowPlaneFly.html
http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/gal109/NEWHTF/HTF532.HTM
http://www.aircav.com/histturb.html
http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bljjetenginehistory.htm
http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blenginegasturbine.htm
http://www.gas-turbines.com/primer/primer.htm