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Use of HSFG Bolts

in Railway Bridges
(Based on BS-111)

HSFG Bolts - Introduction


High Strength Friction Grip Bolts
High

strength bolts
Having axial force that holds the plies (members)
together
Concerns about proper tightening
Concerns about theft
BS-111 issued in June 2012 (Rev. III Jan

15)

HSFG Bolts for field connections?


We cannot go for field welds due to quality concerns
Rivets is currently the only option for field

connection of steel sections


Riveting is a dying art - Few skilled persons available who
can do riveting
Riveting gangs not available especially for small quantum of
work
Quality of rivets done at difficult locations not so good
No option but to go in for some alternative like

HSFG bolts

HSFG Bolts Advantages


Bolts can be installed much quickly as compared to

rivets.
Bolt installation does not require much skilled
staff.
HSFG bolts have much better fatigue performance
as compared with the rivets.
Bolts are maintenance free and do not get loose
under vibrations.

HSFG Bolts Concerns


There is a concern that bolts can be opened for

stealing steel members and for mischief.


Proper tightening of bolts is pre-requisite for its
performance.
The performance of bolts depends on the
coefficient of friction between steel surfaces, which
depends on the condition of surface at the time of
tightening

HSFG Bolts Action


Bolts are tightened to stress level beyond

yield point
Pre-defined load induced in the shank of the
bolt
The plates/members are pressed together
Friction developed at the interface of
members resists the external forces

Principle on which HSFG Bolts work


Bolts are subject to tension beyond yield

point

Use torque wrench manual or

preferably hydraulic

Action of Rivets/ Ordinary Bolts

Bearing Action

Shearing Action

Action of HSFG Bolts


Coefficient of friction
decides the load before
the surfaces slip

HSFG Bolt assembly


Bolt
Nut
Washers

HSFG Bolts Identification


Property Class: x.y
x: Tensile strength
y: Ratio of lower yield strength to normal tensile
strength
E.g. class 8.8, 10.9
8.8 means tensile strength of 800 N/mm2 and lower
yield strength 80% of the same i.e. 640 N/mm2
Identification in field: Along with

manufacturer initials, following shall be


embossed or indented on head

Class 8.8: 8S or 8.8S


Class 10.9: 10S or 10.9S

HSFG Nuts Identification


Property Class: x
x: Tensile strength
E.g. class 8 and 10, suitable for bolt calss 8.8 and
10.9
Nuts shall be hardened and then tempered at

4250C.
Identification in field: Along with
manufacturer initials, following shall be
embossed or indented on top or bottom

Class 8: 8S or 8.8S
Class 10: 10S or 10.9S

HSFG Washers
Provided to prevent abrasion of steel members

during bolt tightening and for packing


Three types

Identification

Nib

Type A: Plain hole circular washers.


Type B: Square taper washers for use with channels (60 taper)
Type C: Square taper washers for use with I-beams (80 taper)
Plain washers identified by two nibs
Square washers have type indented

Special Washers
Another washer type used
Direct Tension Indicator (DTI) washer

Have projections which press down when the tension comes in


bolt
Calibrated to indicate when the tension has been reached in bolt

Action of DTI washer


Visual indicator of bolt being properly tightened

How to provide HSFG Bolts


Hole: Dia of holes for HSFG bolts shall be 2 mm

more than nominal dia of bolt i.e. 22 mm for M20


bolt.
Oversize holes: Max 1.25d or d+4 mm.
Length of bolt: Shall include grip, all washers and
extra constant for nut and projection.
Maximum length 10 times dia of bolt

How to provide HSFG Bolts


No of washers:

Minimum 1 for class 8.8 bolt (including the DTI, if provided)


Minimum 2 for class 10.9 bolt (including the DTI, if provided)
DTI shall be provided under head if nut rotated and vice versa.

Maximum no of packing washers allowed

3 with combined thickness not exceeding 12 mm

Surface preparation

New structures: Aluminium metallising without any painting


Existing structures: Removal of existing paint by wire brushing
etc equivalent to scraping.

Sequence of tightening bolts


Bring holes in alignment using

ordinary bolts and drifts


Insert bolts and tighten slightly by
hand wrenches
Starting from more stiff (i.e. central
part) to less stiff (i.e. edge part),
tighten all bolts to first stage.
Check if gap between members has
been closed and members are in
close contact
Re-tighten all bolts, to second stage.

Procedure for tightening of bolts


Using DTI Washer
1. Calibration of DTI washer shall be done before the

same is procured.
2.First Stage Tightening: Using manual wrench, all
bolts shall be tightened to snug tight level.

Check if plies are in close contact

3.Second Stage Tightening: Using Torque wrench,

all bolts shall be tightened till DTI indicates full


tension in bolt.

0.4 mm feeler gauge shall be used to check if the indentation is


closed to requisite level.

Procedure for tightening of bolts


Number
of
indicator
positions in DTI washer

Minimum number of
feeler gauge refusals*

4
5
6
7
8
9

3
3
4
4
5
5

*No more than 10% of the indicators in a connection


bolt group shall exhibit full compression of the
indicator.

Procedure for tightening of bolts


Without using DTI Washer
1. Calibrated wrench with an accuracy of 10% shall be

available.
2.First Stage Tightening: Using caliberated torque
wrench, all bolts shall be tightened to 75% of
computed torque.

Check if plies are in close contact


10 % bolts shall be checked with a separate calibrated wrench
set at 75% of the proof load for the bolt and any bolt turning by
more than 150 during the same shall be rejected.
Mark shall be made to indicate relative position of nut and
bolt.

Procedure for tightening of bolts


2. Second Stage Tightening: Bolt shall be further

tightened to rotate by a further amount:

Total nominal thickness t Further rotation to be applied,


of parts to be connected during
the
second
stage
of
(including all packing and tightening
washers), d = dia of bolt
Degrees
Part turns

t < 2d
60
1/6
2d
< 6d check 100% bolts to have rotated
90
1/4
tVisually
by the requisite
6d tamount
10d
120
1/3

1% bolts shall be checked for gross under-tightening as per


procedure given in IS:4000

Precautions in use of HSFG Bolts


Surface preparation is most important and it must

be ensured that the metallised surface shall not be


painted.
Bolts once tightened to second stage go in plastic
stage. These cannot be reused in same or other holes.
Calibration of DTI washers or torque wrench is very
important and adequate care shall be taken for the
same .

Anti-theft/anti-sabotage measures
Option I: Bolt threads destroyed by welding

tack to the bolt projection beyond the nut after final


tightening and inspection.

The tack shall not be more than 5 mm long and not more than
3 mm in size.

Option II: Use of proven bonding agent to

seize or lock the bolt in position may be applied to


the threads projecting beyond the nut.
Experimentally, RDSO has found that HSFG bolts
upto 20 mm diameter can be opened. Larger bolt
diameters require considerable force to open and
cannot be opened by stealth.

Experience on Indian Railways


Being used for Road Over bridges

RDSO drawing issued for the same

Used for Microwave Towers for quite some time.


Bridge No

No of bolts
provided

Br No 171 DN, 106 in cross


5 x 60, MGS
frames
division, ECRly
Br No 65, 17 x
47.25 m, W
Rly, BRC
Division

Duration for
which in track

Performance

9 years, from
05/97 to
03/06.

Good.

675 in X-girder ~ 10 years,


- stringer
from 2002 to
connection,
Dec 2011
bracing, etc

Checked
quarterly, NO
BOLT FOUND
LOOSE OR
BROKEN.