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Nuclear Energy

Prepared by:M.Zaheer Asghar


2013-ag-4714

Introduction to nuclear
power
Uranium was discovered in 1789 by Martin
Klaproth, a German chemist, and named after the
planet Uranus.
The science of atomic radiation, atomic change
and nuclear fission was developed from 1895 to
1945, much of it in the last six of those years.
Over 1939-45, most development was focused on
the atomic bomb.
From 1945 attention was given to harnessing this
energy in a controlled fashion for naval propulsion
and for making electricity.
Since 1956 the prime focus has been on the
technological evolution of reliable nuclear power
plants.

Nuclear power(cont..)
The energy of the atomic nucleus
Two processes can be used to release
that energy
Fission splitting of atomic nuclei
Fusion fusing or combining of atomic
nuclei

Nuclear reactors-devices that


produce controlled nuclear fission.
Used for commercial energy production

Worldwide Nuclear Power


Reactors
There are 440 nuclear power reactors
in 31 countries.
30 more are under construction.
They account for 16% of the worlds
electricity.
They produce a total of 351 gig watts
(billion watts) of electricity.

NPPs AROUND THE WORLD

PERCENT OF ELECTRICITY FROM


NUCLEAR ENERGY

NPPs in Pakistan
Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
(PAEC) is responsible for planning,
construction and operation of nuclear
power plants.
In Pakistan 3.5% energy produced by
Nuclear means.

NPPs in Pakistan(Cont)
KANNUP
Capacity : 137/90 MW
Commercial Operation :
Dec 1972

CHASNUPP-1
Capacity : 325 MW
Commercial Operation :
Sep 2000

NPPs in Pakistan(Cont)
CHASNUPP-2
Capacity : 325 MW
Commercial Operation : May
2011

CHASNUPP-3
Capacity : 340 MW
First Concrete Pour : Mar
4, 2011
Commercial Operation :
Dec 31, 2016

NPPs in Pakistan(Cont)
CHASNUPP-4
Capacity : 340 MW
First Concrete Pour :
Dec 18, 2011
Commercial
Operation : Oct 31,
2017

Fission Reaction

Fusion Reactions
A classic example of a fusion reaction
is that of deuterium (heavy
hydrogen) and tritium which is
converted to Helium and release
energy. p + p
He + n + .42
MeV

Coal or Oil Power Plant

NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS


ARE THE PRODUCT OF:

Nuclear Engineers
Mechanical Engineers
Electrical Engineers
Civil Engineers
Human Factors Experts
Computer Engineers/Scientists
Environmental Engineers
Etc.

Nuclear Power Plant

BOILING WATER REACTOR

BWR:

P=1000 psi

T=545F

PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR

PWR

P=2250 psi

T=600F

Fission Reactors
Main components of a reactor
Core: For fuel.
Control rods: control the rate of reaction or stop it.
The control rods essentially contain neutron
absorbers like, boron, cadmium or indium.
Coolant: remove heat
The coolant pump pressurizes the coolant to
pressures of the order of 155bar
Reactor vessel: In which all the reaction take place.
The entire reactor is contained in a reinforced
concrete building

A schematic representation of the


basic parts of a nuclear reactor

These are uranium oxide fuel pellets that are stacked inside
fuel rods and rod assembly.

Components of NPPs
FEED PUMP
Steam coming out of the turbine,
flows through the condenser for
condensation and recirculates for the
next cycle of operation.
The feed pump circulates the
condensed water in the working fluid

Components of NPPs(cont)
COOLING TOWER
Cooling towers are heat removal devices used to
transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere.
Water circulating through the condenser is taken
to the cooling tower for cooling and reuse

CONDENSER

Condenser is a device or unit which is used to


condense vapor into liquid.

WASTE DISPOSAL
A concern to many people.
Used (spent) nuclear fuel
consists of ceramic pellets
encased in metal tubes.
Current solution: On-site
storage at NPPs.

DRY STORAGE IN CASKS ON


SITE

Problems with Nuclear


Power
Uranium mines and mills produce
radioactive waste material that can
polluted the environment.
U-235 enrichment and fabrication of
fuel assemblies also produces waste
materials.
Site selection and construction
controversial.
Power plants also the site of past
accidents or partial meltdowns.

Problems with Nuclear


Power
Handling and disposal of waste.
Decommissioning expensive.
Terrorists could collect plutonium for
dirty bomb.

Nuclear Energy and the


Environment
Nuclear fuel cycle includes:
Mining and processing of uranium to
controlled fission
Reprocessing of spent fuel
Decommissioning of power plants
Disposal of radioactive waste

Throughout the cycle radiation can


enter and affect the environment.

Pathways Of Exposure To Man From


Release of Radioactive Materials

http://www.greenfacts.org/en/chernobyl/, Chernobyl Forum(2006)

http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/chernobyl/inf07.htm

Safety of Nuclear Plants


Steel-reinforced concrete and a dome-shaped containment
buildings surround all US reactors (inner wall several feet
thick and outer wall at least 15 inches thick)
Designed to withstand hurricanes, earthquakes, high
winds
Reactors have detectors to quickly shut down in event of
tremor (about 20% are in regions with seismic activity)
In considering safety, must address
Faults in plant design
Human error
Risks associated with terrorism/political instability

Risks & Benefits of Nuclear Power

Risks & Benefits of Nuclear


Power

Coal-fired electric plants


(one 1000 MW plant)

Nuclear plants
(one 1000 MW plant)

releases 4.5 million tons of CO2

produces 70 ft3 of HLW/year

produces 3.5 million ft3 of waste ash/year

no CO2 released

releases 300 tons of SO2 and ~100 tons NOx/day

no acidic oxides of sulfur and nitrogen released

releases Uranium and Thorium from coal

The Future of Nuclear


Energy
Advocates argue that nuclear power is
good for the environment
It does not produce potential global warming
through release of carbon dioxide.
It does not cause acid rain.
If breeder reactors are developed the amount
of fuel will be greatly increased.

Arguments for standardization,


Safer and smaller plants to provide more
energy

The Future of Nuclear


Energy
Argument against
Based on political and economic
consideration
As well as uncertainty of safety issues
Known reserves would be used up
quickly
May be a path to nuclear weapons

Why NPPs is an option?


Cost effective
Environment friendly as compared to
coal