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COMPUTER CONCEPTS

What You Will Learn

Becoming Fluent with Computers and the


Internet

The importance of computer fluency


The four basic operations of a computer
The information processing cycle
Responsible computer usage
Hardware devices that handle input, processing, output,
and storage devices
The difference between system and application software
The Internet
Internet services

What is computer fluency?


The knowledge possessed by people
who are able to navigate the digital
world successfully.

NOT THIS

What is a computer?
A machine that, under a programs
direction,
performs
four
basic
operations: input, processing, output,
and storage.

What is a program?
A list of instructions that tells a
computer how to perform the four
basic operations.

What is input?
Data entered into the computer
system for processing.
Electrical impulses representing
words, numbers, images, or
sounds.

What is processing?
Performing arithmetic or comparison
(logical) operations on the data.

Arithmetic
Logic

4 + 16 =
728 > 546

20

What is output?
Showing the results of the
processing operation in a way
people can understand.

What is storage?
Saving the data or output so
that it can be used again later.

What is a processing cycle?


A four step operation that the processor
uses to fetch, decode, execute and writeback data.
Batch processing:
A lockstep sequence used by older
computers.
Interactive processing:
Initiating
several
information
processing cycles in a single session
used by modern computers.

What are the computers physical components?

HARDWARE
Input devices - Enable users to put data into the
computer for processing.
Processing circuitry - Components located in
the systems case that transform data into
information.
Output devices - Peripherals that show the
results of processing.
Storage devices - Used to hold all the programs
and data that the computer uses.
Communication Devices - Used to move data
between computers.

What are input devices?


Mouse- pointing device
Keyboard

Microphonespeech-recognition

What are processing devices?


Motherboard
Expansion card

Central Processing Unit- CPU

Random Access
Memory- RAM

What are output devices?


Monitor

Speakers

Printer

What are storage devices ?


Micro Drive

Floppy Disk Drive

CD / DVD
Drive

Zip Drive

Jazz
Drive

Hard Drive

Tape
Drive

What are communications devices ?

Modem

Network Interface
Card- NIC

What are the different types of computers?


Desktop- PC, Microcomputer

Workstation

Supercomputer
Mainframe
Minicomputer
Server
Notebook-Laptop

Personal Digital
Assistant- PDA,
Handheld, Pocket PC

What is software?
Programs that give the computers
hardware its step-by-step instructions.

What are the different types of software?


System software
All programs that help the computer
function properly.
Application software
All the programs you use to perform
a task such as writing a letter or
browsing the World Wide Web.
System software

Application software

What is an operating system?


System software that . . .
Coordinates the various functions of the
computers hardware
Provide support for running application
software
Provide utility programs for optimizing
computer performance

What are the types of operating systems?


Command-line interface
Users type instructions at the keyboard, one
line at a time. Examples: MS-DOS, PC DOS,
UNIX
Graphical user interface (GUI)
Users choose items from menus by using a
pointing device to click on icons which
represent
resources
and
commands.
Examples: Windows, Mac OS

Command-line interface

Graphical User Interface (GUI)

What is a software suite?


A collection of full featured standalone
programs that usually share a common
command structure and have similar
interfaces.

MS WORD

MS EXCEL

MS ACCESS

MS POWERPOINT

MS FRONT PAGE

What is the internet?


A world-spanning computer network.

What are internet services?


Standards and software that make internet
resources, such as Web pages, files and
electronic mail available to users.
Electronic mail- (e-mail)

World Wide Web- (WWW)

Electronic commerce- (e-commerce)

File Transfer Protocol- (FTP)


Instant messaging

The

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