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The

Muscular
System

Lecture slides prepared by Curtis DeFriez, Weber State University


Copyright John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Muscular Tissue

Muscle cell is called a


muscle fiber.
Muscle cells make up the
muscle tissue.
A skeletal muscle is a
muscle organ, simply
called a muscle.
Copyright John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Muscular Tissue
muscles make up a large percentage of bodys
weight

Properties of Muscular Tissue:


1.Excitable

or irritable: ability to
respond to a stimulus
2.Contractible: can shorten in
length
3.Extensible: can extend or stretch
4.Elastic: can return to original
shape
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Functions of Muscular Tissue


1. Create motion or movement
-together with nerves, bones, & joints
-example: walking, move body parts
-peristaltic contractions in the
digestive tract move substances
2. stabilize body positions and maintain
posture
3. store substances within the body using
sphincters
4. thermogenesis: generate body heat
through muscle contraction
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Three Types of Muscular Tissue

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Three Types of Muscular Tissue

(a) Skeletal muscle

(b) Cardiac muscle

(c) Visceral smooth muscle


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Smooth or Visceral muscles


"visceral muscle"
Involuntary cannot be
consciously controlled
in walls of hollow
visceral/internal organs
stomach, urinary bladder,
blood vessels, respiratory
tracts
arranged in sheets or layers
Example what they do:
movement of food through
the digestive tract
emptying of bladder
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CARDIAC muscles
found only in the heart
Involuntary
acts without outside
nervous stimulation or
control
contracts ryhthmically
Function:
- pump blood
- maintain blood
pressure
Has Intercalated disks
that
permit contractions to
spread quickly
throughout the heart
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SKELETAL muscle: the muscle organ


Cause

movement of bones
at joints
They fatigue.
Voluntary: we can
consciously make them
work
Attached to skeleton by
tendons
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THE SKELETAL MUSCLES


(ORGANS)

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Functions of Skeletal muscles


1. Move bones by pulling not pushing
-

work in synergy or in teams: any


movement generally accomplished by
more than one muscle

Often in pairs:
Agonist or Prime Mover: muscle that
produces or is most responsible for the
action
Antagonist: opposes action of agonist
Ex: biceps flex arm so is the agonist
triceps extend the arm so is the
antagonist
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Agonist vs Antagonists
agonist

antagonist

antagonist

agonist

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Functions of Skeletal
muscles
Example

2: levators &
depressors
Levators: muscles that raise
a part
Ex: Levator Scapulae:
-at the back & side of neck,
-a strap like shoulder muscle
-helps raise and rotate the
shoulder blade
Copyright John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Functions of Skeletal muscle

Maintenance of Posture or Muscle


Tone
-tonic contractions of skeletal
muscles
-don't produce movement yet hold
our muscles in position
3. Heat production
- muscle contraction causes ATP to
breakdown which releases most
of the body heat needed to
maintain body temperature
2.

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Sources of Muscle Energy

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Skeletal Muscle Metabolism


In a state of homeostasis, muscle use
of O2 and nutrients is balanced by the
production of manageable levels of
waste products like:
CO2
Heat - 70-80% of the energy used by
muscles is lost as heat - muscle
activity is important for maintaining
body temperature
Lactic acid (anaerobic)
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The Skeletal Muscle Fiber or


Cell
SARCOMERE: the functional contraction unit of
-

skeletal muscle fibers or cells


of thick & thin filaments between two Z discs

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Arrangement of Muscle Proteins in sarcomere

Thin filaments: of protein ACTIN


Thick filaments: of protein MYOSIN
Contraction or shortening of
muclse occur in the sarcomere
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Muscle Proteins
In the thin filaments, actin proteins are strung together like a bead of
pearls:

In the thick filaments, myosin proteins look like golf clubs bound
together

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The Sliding-Filament
Mechanism
in the presence of Ca and ATP, the thick
ofand
Contraction
thin filaments slide on one another
2+

and so the sarcomere is shortened

Copyright John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

All-or-none principle of muscle fiber/cell


contraction:
a muscle fiber/cell does not partially contract;
it either contracts completely when stimulated
by at least a threshold stimulus or not at all
4 stages of muscle fiber/cell contraction:
(LCRRef)
1. Latent period: before contraction
2. Contraction period: shorten rapidly
3. Relaxation period: return to normal length
4. Refractory period: temporary loss of
excitability

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Types of Muscle Contraction based


on length
1. ISOTONIC CONTRACTIONS
-same tone or tension, when a muscle
shortens and movement occurs (results in
movement at a joint)
-walking, breathing, bending, rotating arms,
smiling

2. ISOMETRIC CONTRACTIONS: no movement


-results in increase tension within a muscle
-pushing against an immovable object like
a wall or supporting objects in a fixed
position
-to strengthen & enlarge muscles
-for posture
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Tension in a Muscle

1. Muscle TWITCH : a single, brief, weak


contraction of a single muscle fiber that
lasts a fraction of a second
2. Muscle TONE: state of constant partial
contraction in a muscle organ
even when muscle is relaxed, some of its
fibers are alternately contracting
keeps muscles ready to respond, firm &
healthy
maintains an erect posture
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3. TETANUS or TETANIC CONTRACTION


sustained contraction of motor units because
muscles are stimulated so rapidly in series so
no relaxation is seen
usual way in which muscles contract to produce
body movement

Where tetanus is
normally applied:
Walking
Running
Jumping

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Imbalances of Homeostasis
1. Exercise-induced muscle
damage
after intense exercise electron
micrographs reveal considerable
muscle damage (torn sarcolemmas)
blood levels of proteins normally
confined only to muscle (including
myoglobin & the enzyme creatine
kinase) increase as they are
released from damaged muscle
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Imbalances of Homeostasis
2. SPASM
sudden involuntary
contraction of a single muscle
within a large group of
muscles usually painless
ex. hiccupping

3. CRAMP
involuntary, painful, sustained tetanic
muscle contraction
due to inadequate blood flow to
muscles
due dehydration, overuse & injury,
abnormal
blood electrolyte
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Imbalances of Homeostasis
4. MUSCLE FATIGUE
-

usually happens to marathoners who


collapse
when working vigorously
due to OXYGEN DEBT during
prolonged muscle activity leading to
lactic acid accumulation & low ATP
supply so muscles contract less and
less then finally stop & unable to
contract or no longer responds to
stimulation even though still being
stimulated
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Imbalances of Homeostasis
5. AGING & its effect on the muscles
in part due to decreased levels of
physical activity
with aging humans undergo a
slow, progressive loss of skeletal
muscle mass
Muscle mass is replaced largely
by fibrous connective and
adipose tissues
muscle strength at 85 is about
half that at age 25
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