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Compressors

Basic Classification and design overview


And maintenance

What are
compressors?
Compressors are mechanical devices that
compresses gases. It is widely used in
industries and has various applications

How they are different from pumps?


Major

difference is that compressors handles the gases and pumps handles


the liquids.
As

gases are compressible, the compressor also reduces the volume of gas.

Liquids

are relatively incompressible; while some can be compressed

Centrifugal pump

What are its applications?


Compressors have many everyday uses, such as in :

Air

conditioners, (car, home)

Home

and industrial refrigeration

Hydraulic

Air

compressors for industrial machines

compressors for industrial manufacturing

Refrigeration compressor

What are its various types?


Compressor classification can be described by following flow chart:

What are dynamic


compressors?
The dynamic compressor is continuous flow compressor is characterized by rotating
impeller to add velocity and thus pressure to fluid.
It is widely used in chemical and petroleum refinery industry for specific services.
There are two types of dynamic compressors
Centrifugal Compressor
Axial Flow Compressor

Centrifugal Compressor
Achieves

compression by applying inertial forces to the gas by means of


rotating impellers.
It

is multiple stage ; each stage consists of an impeller as the rotating


element and the stationary element, i.e. diffuser

Fluid flow enters the impeller axially and discharged radially

The gas next flows through a circular chamber (diffuser), where it loses
velocity and increases pressure.

Axial flow compressor


Working fluid principally flows parallel to the axis of rotation.
The energy level of air or gas flowing through it is increased by the
action of the rotor blades which exert a torque on the fluid
Have the benefits of high efficiency and
large mass flow rate
Require several rows of airfoils to achieve
large pressure rises making them complex and
expensive

Why multistage compressor?


High

temp rise leads into limitation for the maximum achievable pressure

rise.
Discharge temperature shall not exceed 150C and should not exceed 135 0C
for hydrogen rich services
A multistage centrifugal compressor compresses air to the required
pressure in multiple stages.
Intercoolers are used in between each stage to removes heat and decrease
the temperature of gas so that gas could be compressed to higher pressure
without much rise in temperature

Intercooler

What are positive displacement


compressors?
Positive displacement compressors causes movement by trapping a fixed amount
of air then forcing (displacing) that trapped volume into the discharge pipe.
It can be further classified according to the mechanism used to move air.
Rotary Compressor
Reciprocating compressor

Rotary compressors
The

gas is compressed by the rotating action of


a roller inside a cylinder.
The

roller rotates off-centre around a shaft so


that part of the roller is always in contact with
the cylinder.
Volume of the gas occupies is reduced and the
refrigerant is compressed.

High

efficient as sucking and compressing


refrigerant occur simultaneously.

Reciprocating compressor
It is a positive-displacement compressor that
Uses pistons driven by a crankshaft to deliver
at high pressure.

The

gases

intake gas enters the suction manifold, then flows


into the compression cylinder
It

gets compressed by a piston driven in a


reciprocating motion via a crankshaft,
Discharged

at higher pressure

Maintenance
Location : should be dry ,
clean , cool

FAILURE TO MAKE THESE RECOMMENDED CHECKS COULD RESULT IN


SERIOUS INJURY, PROPERTY DAMAGE, AND MECHANICAL FAILURE.

1. Remove all loose pieces and tools around the compressor installation.
2. Check oil level in crankcase.
3. Check motor and compressor pulley for alignment and tightness on shaft
4. Be absolutely certain that all mounting bolts are tight.
5. Manually rotate compressor through enough revolutions to be certain there are
no
mechanical interferences.
6. Check belt tension, it should be neither too loose nor too tight.
7. Check all pressure connections for tightness.
8. Check to make sure all safety relief valves are in place.
9. Check to be sure all guards are in place and securely mounted.
10. Check fuses, circuit breakers and thermal overloads for proper size.
11. Open all manual shutoff valves (block valves) at and beyond the compressor
discharge.
12. After all of the above conditions have been satisfied, jog the starter switch
button to
check the rotational direction of the compressor, it should agree with the rotation
arrow
on the unit.

Periodic protective maintenance

We will discuses steps and actions in following tables :

annually

Semiannually

monthly

weekly

daily

check

1. Check Low oil level. Maintain between


High and level masks on gauge.
CAUTION: Do not overfill!

2. Drain moisture accumulation from the air


receiver

3. Drain drop legs and u in air distribution


system.

4. Give compressor an overall visual


inspection and be sure safety guards are in
place

Check for any unusual noise or vibration. 5

.Check for oil leaks. 6

7. Operate the safety valves to be certain


they are functioning

8. Clean the cooling surfaces of the


intercooler, aftercooler and compressor

9. Replace more or clean air intake filter.


Check more often if dirty conditions exist.

10. Check the air distribution system for air


leaks

11. Inspect oil for contamination and


change if necessary. Check more often
under dirty conditions.

.Check belt tension. 12

13. Check pulley and pulley clamp screws or


set screws for tightness.
.Inspect compressor valves. 14

Some problems and solution

Solutions

Causes

Anomalies

Invert the phase wires, press the


RESET button on the electronic
.board and start again

The compressor fails to start, the


screw unit is running in the wrong
Direction.

The compressor runs in the wrong


direction. Message on display
.ROTATION ALARM

Check the electric connections of


the probe. Check the oil level,
check
if the radiator is clean, check if the
pre anti-dust filter is clean, check
the
ambient temperature, check the
minimum distance of the
compressor
from the walls of the room

Excessive temperature of air/oil


mix outlet from the screw (105
C).

Oil alarm triggers and the machine


stops (red LED).
Message on display TEMPERATURE
ALARM.
Check the temperature on the
display.

Check if the electric power supply


is correct, check if the 3 power
supply phases are roughly the
same value. Check if the cables
are firmly connected to the terminal
board, check if the electric cables
have melted. Check if the suction
grid of the cooling fan of the motor
is clean and not clogged with
anything (paper, leaves, rags). To
start the machine again

The trip switch that protects the


compressor motor has tripped.

The trip switch of the compressor


motor trips and the machine stops
(red LED).
Message on display COMP.
TRIP SWITCH ALARM

Solutions

Causes

Anomalies

Check if the electric power supply


is correct, check if the 3 power
supply phases are roughly the
same value. Check if the cables
are firmly connected to the terminal
board, check if the electric cables
have melted check FV fuses.
Check if the suction grid of the
cooling fan of the motor is clean
and not clogged with anything
(paper, leaves, rags). To start the
machine again, disconnect it from
the mains, open the front panel of
the compressor, press the reset
key in the electric cabinet (see
button 3 sect. 5.2.3) and press
RESET on the board

The trip switch that protects the


fan motor has tripped

The trip switch of the fan motor


trips and the machine stops (red
LED).
Message on display FAN TRIP
SWITCH ALARM

Thank You