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PRODUCT DESIGN

Lectures
by
Dr Liaqat Ali
School of Mechanical and Manufacturing
Engineering

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE


Contents
General Design Principles
DFM Guide Lines
INJECTION AND ROTATIONAL MOLDING
SHEET METAL FORMING
CASTING
MACHINING

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE


General Design Principles
Responsibilities of a Designer
Basic Principles for Designing
for Economical Production
General Design Rules

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE


Responsibilities of a Designer
A broad responsibility to
produce a design that meets all
its objectives

Functionality Paramount Importance


Durability
Appearance
Reliability
Cost

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE


Responsibilities of a Designer
Cost
Designer Cannot say, I designed
it. Now its the manufacturing
Engineers job to make it at a

reasonable cost. (Bralla)


The Functional design and cost are
very closely interrelated

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE


Responsibilities of a Designer
Product Designer
Must consider the conditions
under which manufacturing
will take place and must be
able to visualize how each
part is made

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE


Basic Design Principles for Economical
Production
Simplicity
Standard Materials and Components
Standard Design of Product
Liberal Tolerances
Processible Material
Teamwork with Manufacturing Personnel
Avoidance of Secondary Operations
Appropriate to the Level of Production
Special Process Characteristics
Avoiding Process Restrictiveness

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE


Basic Design Principles for
Economical Production
Simplicity

Fewer Parts
Least Intricate Shape
Fewer Precision Adjustments
Shortest Manufacturing Sequence
Easy to Service
Easy to Function

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE


Basic
Design
Principles
Economical Production
Standard
Materials
Components

for
and

Use of Widely Available Materials


Off the Shelf Components
Simplifies Inventory Management
Eases Purchasing
Reduces
Tooling
and
Equipment
Investment
Speeds-up the Manufacturing Cycle

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE


Basic Design Principles for
Economical Production
Standard Design of Product
Modular Design Approach
Use Same Materials, Parts and
Subassemblies for Similar Products
Simplifies Process Control
Reduces Tooling and Equipment
Investment
Reduces Operator Training

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE


Basic
Design
Principles
Economical Production
Liberal/Relax Tolerances

for

Tight Tolerances Higher Cost


Extra Operations (Grinding, Lapping etc
after Main Machining)
Specialized Tooling
Longer Operating Cycles
Higher Scrap
Higher Skill and Training
Higher Material Costs
High Initial Equipment Investment

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE


Basic Design Principles for
Economical Production
Processible Material
Functional Characteristics
Cost
Cycle Time
Machinability
Weldability
FlowabilityTight

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE


Basic Design Principles for
Economical Production
Teamwork
with
Mfg
Personnel
Increased Producibility
Process Selection
Close Coordination
Lower Costs

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE


Basic Design Principles for
Economical Production
Avoidance
of
Secondary
Operations
Consider the Cost of Processes
Eliminate or Reduce Expensive
Operations
Fixtures, Gauges
Be
Careful
in
Specifying
Inspection Points

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE


Basic Design Principles for
Economical Production
Appropriate to the Level of
Production
Quantity Forecast
Specify Processes Accordingly
Examples: Die Casting

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE


Basic
Design
Principles
Economical Production
Special Process Characteristics

for

Special
Capabilities
of
Manufacturing
Processes
Eliminate
the
Need
for
Separate
Components
Eliminate the Need for Several Processes
Example:
Injection
Molding-Color
and
Texture
Example: Plastic Molding- Living Hinges
Example:
Powder
Metallurgy-Lubricant
Retention

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE


Basic Design Principles for
Economical Production
Avoiding
Process
Restrictiveness
Define
only
the
Final
Characteristics of Parts
Needed Dimensions
Surface Finish
Allow Manufacturing Engineers
Maximum Latitude

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE


General Design Rules
Simplify the Design
Reduce Number of Parts
Combine Parts
One Part, Several Functions

Use Symmetry
Easy Serviceability

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE


General Design Rules
Low Labor-Cost Operations
Punch Press is Quicker than
Drilling
Drilling is Quicker than Boring
Tumble Deburring is Less Labor
than Hand Deburring

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE


General Design Rules
Avoid Generalized Statements
Clear
Interpretation
for
the
Manufacturing Personnel
Notes Must be Specific
Example: Polish this Surface
Example: Corners Must be Square
Example: Tools Marks are not
Permitted
Example: Assembly Must Exhibit
Good Workmanship

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE


General Design Rules
Dimensioning
Not from Space
From Points and Surfaces on the
Part
From one Datum Line
Facilitates
Fixtures
and
Gauge
Making
Helps Avoid Measurement Errors
Simplifies Tooling and Gauging
Helps Avoid Overlap of Tolerances

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE


General Design Rules
Minimum Weight
Fulfill Functional Requirements
Fulfill Strength and Stiffness
Requirements
Strive for Minimum Weight
Reduces Cost
Reduces Labor

DESIGN FOR
MANUFACTURE
General Design Rules

Standard Tooling
Use General Purpose Tooling than
Special Tooling
Familiarize with General Purpose
and Available Tools
Use Special Tools only for Highest
Level of Production

DESIGN FOR
MANUFACTURE
General Design Rules

Avoid Sharp Corners


Use Generous Fillets and Radii
Universal Rule Applicable to Castings,
Molded, Formed and Machined Parts
Reduces Stress Concentration both on
Part and Tool
Better Flow of Materials during
Manufacturing
Scrap Reduction

DESIGN FOR
MANUFACTURE
General Design Rules

Restrict Repositioning
As many Manufacturing Operations as
Possible without
Repositioning
Reduces Handling
Reduces Number of Operation
Improves Accuracy
Stress Concentration both on Part and Tool
Better Flow of Materials during
Manufacturing
Scrap Reduction

DESIGN FOR
MANUFACTURE
General Design Rules

Uniform Thickness
Design with as much Uniform
Thickness as Possible
More Important for Castings and
Moldings

DESIGN FOR
MANUFACTURE
General Design Rules

Avoid Stepped Lines


Avoid Stepped Lines in Cast, Molded
or Powder Metal Parts
Reduces Mold and Pattern
Complexity
Reduces Cost