Human Genome

Project and DNA
Fingerprinting
Molecular Basis of
Inheritance

History of HGP:
• The $3-billion project was formally founded in 1990 by
the US Department of Energy, the National Institutes of
Health and National Human Genome Research Institute,
and was expected to take 15 years.
• In addition to the United States, the international
consortium comprised geneticists in the United
Kingdom, France, Australia, China and myriad other
spontaneous relationships.
• Due to advancement in science the project was
declared completed by 2003

000 proteins coded by humans (according to one gene one protein hypothesis).000 genes since there were at least 100. . • The first completely sequenced genome was the human circular genome of human mitochondrion with 16. • The Humans were expected to possess 100.159 bp in 1981. France and japan initiated the coordination of Human Genome Organization (HUGO).• Along with US other countries like great Britan.

. and analyze the function and structure of genomes (the complete set of DNA within a single cell of an organism). and bioinformatics to sequence. DNA sequencing methods. assemble.Genomics • Genomics is a discipline in genetics that applies recombinant DNA.

This genome-based approach allows for a high-throughput method of structure determination by a combination of experimental and modeling approaches.Subfields of Genomics: • Structural genomics: it seeks to describe the 3dimensional structure of every protein encoded by a given genome. .

• Functional Genomics: it is a field of molecular biology that attempts to make use of the vast wealth of data produced by genomic projects (such as genome sequencing projects) to describe gene (and protein) functions and interactions. .

. and other genomic structural landmarks. gene order. genes. regulatory sequences.• Comparative genomics is a field of biological research in which the genomic features of different organisms are compared. The genomic features may include the DNA sequence.

Goals of HGP • Identification of all protein coding genes. legal and social issues that may arise from the project. . • Determining the 3 billion bp DNA sequence of Human DNA • Storing and obtaining the information in data bases • Development of tools for data analysis • Transfer of related technology to the private sector • Addressing the ethical.

• The International Consortium of Human Genome Project announced the successful completion on April 14 2003.4 Mb • Mus musculus:.9% of accuracy and contains 308. .100. It covers 99% of genes with 99.12. • Arabidopsis thaliana: 120Mb which possess nearly 100 genes similar to disease causing genes of humans.3 Mb • Drosophila melanogaster:.5 Mb of nucleotide information.Comparative analysis of HGP: • Escherichia coli:.64 Mb • Saccharomyces cerevisiae:.118.99% of genome is direct counterpart to that of humans and possess 277 Mb genome in 19A and XY chromosomes.4.07 Mb (16 chromosomes) • Caenorhabditis elegans:.

.

ge Scale Automated Genome Sequencing Lab Beyond Human Genome Project .

Methodologies: • Expression sequence tags or Serial analysis of gene expression .

• Shotgun Sequencing Method .

• Sangers dideoxynucleoti de phosphate method: .

• Bacterial Artificial Chromosome: .

• Yeast Artificial Chromosome .

Advantages of HGP: • Serves to explore our Genome • Better medication and diagnosis • Helps us answer many questions related to * Genome organization * Control of Gene expression * Cellular Growth and Differentiation * Evolutionary Biology and so on • Microbial genome research helps in fuel and environment clean up. .

• The chromosome 1 alone has 2968 gene. • Y-chromosome has only 231 genes • 1. 80% is unique or single copy sequences). average gene size is 300bp.4 million bp DNA. structural and regulatory in function. only 2% of total genome codes for fictional genes and about 50% of genes functions are not known). • Human genome contain 3billion bp (longest is dystrophin gene with 2. • DNA is coding. • 70% of the genome is extragenic. (20% .moderately or highly repetitive.Salient Features of HGP: • The intergenic regions contain gene related sequences and extragenic DNA. Repetitive DNA includes clustered or dispersed repeats.4 million locations possess SNPs .

Applications and future challenges: .

DNA Fingreprinting .

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