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Titrations
pH
pH

At what point in a reaction


does neutralization occur?
Titrant
Titrant volume,
volume, mL
mL

19.4 Neutralization Reactions >

Titration

You can use a neutralization


reaction to determine the
concentration of an acid or base.
The process of adding a measured
amount of a solution of known
concentration to a solution of
unknown concentration is called a

titration.
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Acid-Base Reactions
Strong acid + strong base
HCl + NaOH ----> SALT WATER

Strong acid + weak base


HCl + NH3 ---> ACID

Weak acid + strong base


HOAc + NaOH ---> BASIC

Weak acid + weak base


HOAc + NH3 ---> Ka / Kb

19.4 Neutralization Reactions >

Acid-Base Reactions

A reaction between an acid and a base


will go to completion when the
solutions contain equal moles of
hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions.

The balanced equation provides


the correct ratio of acid to base.

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In strong acids, are all ionizable


hydrogens completely ionized? In
weak acids?
In strong acids, all ionizable hydrogens
are completely ionized. In weak acids,
all ionizable hydrogens are partially
ionized. Some hydrogens in these acids
(those with larger Ka values) have a
greater degree of ionization.

Acetic acid titrated with NaOH

Weak acid titrated


with a strong base
Figure 18.5

19.5 Salts in Solution >

Interpret Graphs

One curve is for the


addition of sodium
hydroxide, a strong
base, to ethanoic acid,
a weak acid.
An aqueous solution
of sodium ethanoate
exists at the
equivalence point.

CH3COOH(aq) + NaOH(aq)
CH3COONa(aq) + H2O(l)
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19.5 Salts in Solution >

Interpret Graphs

This difference in pH exists because hydrolysis occurs


with some salts in solution.

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Acid-Base Titrations
Additional NaOH is added. pH
increases and then levels off
as NaOH is added beyond
the equivalence point.

Adding NaOH from the


buret to acetic acid in
the flask, a weak
acid. In the beginning
the pH increases
very slowly.

Acid-Base Titration
Section 18.3

You
You titrate
titrate 100.
100. mL
mL of
of a
a 0.025
0.025 M
M solution
solution of
of
benzoic
benzoic acid
acid with
with 0.100
0.100 M
M NaOH
NaOH to
to the
the
equivalence
equivalence point.
point. What
What is
is the
the pH
pH of
of the
the
final
final solution?
solution?
HBz
HBz +
+ NaOH
NaOH --->
---> Na
Na++ +
+ Bz
Bz-- +
+ H
H22O
O
Kb = 1.6 x 10-10

C6H5CO2H = HBz

Benzoate ion = Bz-

10

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QUESTION:
QUESTION: You
Youtitrate
titrate100.
100.mL
mLof
of aa
0.025
0.025M
M solution
solutionof
of benzoic
benzoicacid
acid with
with
0.100
0.100M
M NaOH
NaOHto
tothe
theequivalence
equivalencepoint.
point.

pH
pH at
at
half-way
half-way
point?
point?

Benzoic
Benzoic acid
acid
++ NaOH
NaOH

pH
pH at
at
equivalence
equivalence
point?
point?
pH
pH of
of solution
solution of
of
benzoic
benzoic acid,
acid, aa
weak
weak acid
acid

Acid-Base Reactions
QUESTION: You titrate 100. mL of a 0.025 M
solution of benzoic acid with 0.100 M NaOH to
the equivalence point. What is the pH of the
final solution?

Strategy find the conc. of

the
conjugate base Bz- in the solution
AFTER the titration, then calculate pH.
This is a two-step problem
1.
2.

stoichiometry of acid-base
reaction

equilibrium calculation

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STOICHIOMETRY
PORTION
M * V = mol
1. Calc. moles of NaOH reqd
(0.100 L)(0.025 M) = 0.0025 mol HBz
This requires 0.0025 mol NaOH
2. Calc. volume of NaOH reqd
0.0025 mol (1 L / 0.100 mol) = 0.025 L
25 mL of NaOH reqd

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STOICHIOMETRY PORTION
3.
3. Moles
Moles Bz
Bz-- produced
produced == moles
moles HBz
HBz == 0.0025
0.0025 mol
mol

4.
4. Calc.
Calc. conc.
conc. of
of Bz
Bz-There
There are
are 0.0025
0.0025 mol
mol of
of Bz
Bz-- in
in aa TOTAL
TOTAL
SOLUTION
SOLUTION VOLUME
VOLUME of
of

125 mL
[Bz-]

= 0.0025 mol / 0.125 L


= 0.020 M

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Equivalence Point

15

Most
Most important
important species
species in
in solution
solution is
is benzoate
benzoate ion,
ion,
Bz
Bz-.-. ItIt will
will react
react to
to form
form the
the weak
weak conjugate
conjugate base,
base,
benzoic
benzoic acid,
acid, HBz.
HBz.
-10
Bz-- + H22O HBz + OH-Kbb = 1.6 x 10-10
[Bz--]
[HBz]
[OH--]
I
0.020
0
0

-x

+x

+x

0.020 - x

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Acid-Base Reactions

2
2
x

-10
-10
Kb
b 1.6 x 10 = 0.020- x

x = [OH-] = 1.8 x 10-6


pOH = 5.75 -----> pH = 8.25

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QUESTION:
QUESTION: You
Youtitrate
titrate100.
100.mL
mLof
of aa
0.025
0.025M
M solution
solutionof
of benzoic
benzoicacid
acid with
with
0.100
0.100M
M NaOH
NaOHto
tothe
theequivalence
equivalencepoint.
point.
What
What is
isthe
thepH
pHat
at half-way
half-waypoint?
point?

pH
pH at
at
half-way
half-way
point?
point?

Equivalence
Equivalence
point
point
pH
pH == 8.25
8.25

Acid-Base Reactions

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You titrate 100. mL of a 0.025 M solution of


benzoic acid with 0.100 M NaOH.

What is the pH at the half-way point?


-Both
HBz
and
Bz
Both HBz and Bz
are
are present.
present.
This
This is
is aa BUFFER!
BUFFER!

[HBz]
[HBz]

[H
[H33O
O ]
] =
=
Kaa
K
[Bz
[Bz ]]

At the half-way point, [HBz] = [Bz-]


Therefore, [H3O+] = Ka = 6.3 x 10-5

pH = 4.20 = pKa of the acid

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Weak base (NH3)


titrated with a
strong acid (HCl)

Figure 18.7

19.4 Neutralization Reactions >

Key Concepts

In general, acids and bases react to produce a


salt and water.
Neutralization occurs when the number of
moles of hydrogen ions is equal to the
number of moles of hydroxide ions.

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19.4 Neutralization Reactions >

BIG
BIG IDEA
IDEA

Reactions
Chemists use acid-base reactions
to determine the concentration of
an acid or a base in solution.

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