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UNIVERSIDAD DE

GUANAJUATO.
PRACTICAS 4.
SORGHUM CROP.
TEACHER HECTOR GORDON.
STUDENT JOSE MARINO
ARAUJO MENDOZA.

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. moench)


was probably initially domesticated in
central Africa, in the region of Etiopia and
Sudan.
Subsecuently, cultivation of sorghum
spread througout Africa and Asia and
finally to the Americas and Australia.
Today it is one of the worlds major food
crops, particular in Areas of high
temperature and low rain fall.
Its used for human consumption and to
feed different kinds of livestocks such as
birds, pigs and cows.

Sorghum Taxonomy.

Kingdom-Plantae.
Subkingdom-Tracheobionta.
Superdivision-Spermatophyta.
Class-Liliopsida.
Subclass-Commelinidae.
Order-Cyperales.
Family-Poaceae (Grass).
Genus-Sorghum.
Species-Sorghum bicolor.
Subspecies-Sorghum bicolor ssp. Arundinaceum-common wild
sorghum.
Subspecies- Sorghum bicolor ssp. Bicolor-grain sorghum.
Subspecies-Sorghum bicolor ssp. drummondii-sudan grass.
Species-Sorghum almum columbus grass.
Species-Sorghum helepense-johnson grass.
Species-Sorghum propiquum-sorghum.

Sorghum can reach a height from 1-2


metters, it has flowers in panicles, and
seeds of 3 mm with a circular or egg
form, wich it depends of the variety, with
a color the one can be black, red or
yellow.
Its roots can growth 2 metters depending
of the soil and water available to the
crop.
It has flowers with stamens and pistils,
but in Sudan have been found dioicious
varietys.

Area estilar- stylar area.


Endosperma corneo- corneous endosperm.
Endosperma harinoso- flowry endosperm.
Escutelo- scutellum.
Embrin- embryo.
Epicarpio- epicarp.
Mesocarpio- mesocarp.

Sorghum.
1. Day length: Day length neutral &
photosensitive types
2. Rainfall: 600 1,500mm
3. Altitude: 900 1,700m
4. Temperature: 23 32oC
5. Soil Type: Light, well drained loams
Sensitive to acidic soils
6. Root systems: Extensive & Deep
rooted
7. Photosynthetic Activity : Efficient

As a crop for climate change adaptation

1.Moderate input requirements .


2.Easy to grow
3.Fast growth rate
4.Highly responsive to Improved management
5.Drought tolerance
6.Widely adapted
7.Easily extract nutrients from poor soils
8.Fit well in many Tillage systems, crop
Diversification programs and cropping
patterns

Sorghum is the third grain most used in


the world to feed human population, 75%
of the world sorghums produccion is
destinated for human consumption.

In places like India, Africa and China ,


sorghum provides 70% of the calories of
the human diet.

Sorghum is used to make meals like


binder sausages, flour, milkshakes, beer
and also to produce alcohol an many more
uses in construccion and in the industry.

Sorghum the rich food

Carbohydrates 70% High


Protein 8 15%
Mean = 9% Average
Fat 3.4% Average
Vitamin A 21 RE Average
Ash 1.5% Low
Phosphorus 368mg High
Iron 5.7mg Average
Calcium 21mg Average
Potassium 220mg Average
Amino Acid Profile Poor
Micro Nutrients Excellent

ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS CONTAINED IN SORGHUM,


CORN AND WHEAT.

AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF MAJOR CONSTITUENTS

Main sorghum producer countries.

Main sorghum importers


countries

Main sorghum exporters


countries

Sorghum in Mexico.
The national production in mexico in
sorghum crops is: 46.4% in irrigated
crops and 53.6% in temporary crops.
The sorghums crops surface in 2007
in Mexico was 1.87 millions of has.
Wich is 12.35 of the national surface
for the agriculture.

Main sorghum producer states in Mexico.

Tamaulipas 60%.
Guanajuato 21%.
Sinaloa 10%.
Michoacan 8%.
Nayarit 5%.
The rest of the states 16%.

SORGHUMS
MANAGEMENT.

EMERGENCE. When the plant first breaks


through the soil surface (generally
occurs 3 to 10 days after planting).

Depth
and
date of planting
greatly affect emergence rate.
During
this
period,
growth
depends
on
the
seed
for
nutrients and food reserves.

Planting should be timed so that


germination and early growth occur
during warm temperatures and so
flowering will occur before the
hottest period of summer. The time
required for emergence is impacted
by
soil
temperature,
moisture
conditions, depth of planting, and
vigor of the seed.
Cool, wet conditions during this
time may favor disease organisms
that seriously damage stands. Seed
should be treated with a fungicide
before planting.

Weed control
should
be
considered. Producers have preplant, pre-emergent, and/or postemergent herbicides available
for use. Herbicides are generally
used due to the problems
encountered with hoeing or
cultivation of large fields. This is
very apparent in years with
above average rainfall, when
mechanical practices are limited
by wet soil conditions.

Three-Leaf Stage
Leaves
are counted when the collar of
the leaf can be seen without
tearing the plant apart. The
collar is the area where the leaf
blade and leaf sheath attach.

It is important that the date of planting


be late enough so that sorghum can grow
rapidly during the three-leaf stage.
While the plant's growth rate depends
largely on temperature, this stage usually
will occur about 10 days after emergence.
Since the plant is quite small, relatively
slow growth and poor weed control can
seriously reduce yield.
As the growing point is still below the soil
surface, much of the leaf area can be
removed (by hail or insects) without
killing the plant. However, sorghum does
not recover as vigorously as corn.

Five-Leaf Stage Approximately 3


weeks
after
it
emerges
a
sorghum plant has 5 leaves fully
expanded; its root system is
developing rapidly and roots
produced at the lower nodes may
push the lower leaf off the plant.
This usually does not cause
difficulty in identifying the fiveleaf stage because the lower leaf
has a rounded tip and the
second leaf is pointed (Figure 1).

The growing point is still below


the soil surface so leaf loss will
not necessarily kill the plant.
Regrowth is more vigorous than
at the three-leaf stage but still
less vigorous than corn.
During the five-leaf stage the
potential for the plant to develop
is determined.

Weed competition, nutrient and


water stress, or other problems
such as insect damage at the
five-leaf stage, can seriously
reduce yields if they are not
corrected.
The plant enters its "grand
period of growth" in the five-leaf
stage.
Dry matter accumulates
at nearly a constant rate until
maturity, if growing conditions
are satisfactory.

Growing Point Differentiation


About 30 days after sorghum
emerges.
About one-third of the total leaf
area has fully developed; 7 to 10
leaves depending on maturity
class. The lower 1 to 3 leaves
may have been lost.

Growth and nutrient uptake


are
rapid during the growing point
differentiation stage. Adequate
supplies of nutrients and water
are
necessary
to
provide
maximum growth.
Growing point changes
from
vegetative (leaf producing) to
reproductive (head producing).
The total number of leaves has
been determined and potential
head size will soon be determined.

Sorghum plants are now quite


competitive
which
helps
maintain good weed control the
remainder
of
the
growing
season.
Time from planting to growing
point differentiation generally is
about one-third of the time from
planting
to
physiological
maturity (maximum dry weight).

Flag Leaf Stage Following


growing point differentiation,
rapid culm elongation and rapid
leaf development occur
simultaneously until the flag leaf
(final leaf) is visible in the whorl.
Most leaves are fully expanded
except the final 3 to 4 leaves.

About 80 percent of the total leaf area is present.


Light interception is approaching maximum.
The lower 2 to 5 leaves have been lost. Any
reference to leaf number from now on should be
from the top, counting the flag leaf as leaf
number 1.
Growth and nutrient uptake continue at a rapid
rate. While only about one-fifth of the total
growth has occurred, nutrient uptake is far
greater with more than 40 percent of the
potassium already being taken up. Adequate
supplies of nutrients and water are necessary to
provide maximum growth.
The head is developing.
Sorghum plants are now quite competitive which
helps maintain good weed control the remainder
of the growing season

Boot Stage .

All leaves are now fully


expanded, providing maximum
leaf area and light interception.
The head has now developed to
nearly full size and is enclosed in
the flag-leaf sheath.

Rapid growth and nutrient uptake are


continuing.
Severe moisture stress or herbicide
injury during the Boot Stage may
prevent
the
head
from
exerting
completely from the flag-leaf sheath.
This prevents complete pollination at
flowering time.
Except for the peduncle (see Figure 1)
culm elongation is essentially complete.
Peduncle elongation is beginning and
will result in exertion of the head from
the flag-leaf sheath.
Potential
head
size
has
been
determined.

Half-Bloom Stage
Half-bloom is usually defined as
when one-half of the plants in a
field or area are in some stage of
bloom. However, because an
individual sorghum head flowers
from the tip downward over 4 to
9
days,
half-bloom
on
an
individual plant is when the
flowering has progressed halfway down the head.

Time required from planting to half-bloom


depends on the maturity of the hybrid
and environmental conditions; however, it
usually represents two-thirds of the time
from planting to physiological maturity.
Following the boot stage the peduncle
grows rapidly extending the head through
the flag-leaf sheath. Even in combine
sorghums, the peduncle is not reduced in
length as is the rest of the stalk. Although
height of combine-sorghum plants has
been reduced, heads are well above the
leaves, which makes combining easier.

At half-bloom approximately one-half of


the total dry weight of the plant has
been
produced.
However,
nutrient uptake has reached nearly 70,
60, and 80 percent of total for N, P2O5,
and K2O, respectively.
At this time grain formation begins;
therefore, any limitation in plant size,
leaf area, or plant numbers can no
longer be corrected
If
environmental
conditions
are
favorable, the sorghum yield can still
be increased by increasing the seed
weight.

Sever moisture stress can result


in "blasting" and poor head
filling.

As mentioned earlier hybrid


maturity and planting date
should be chosen so flowering
will not occur when severe hot,
dry weather is normal.

Soft-Dough Stage
Between halfbloom and soft-dough the grain fills
rapidly; almost half of its dry weight
is accumulated in this period.
The stalk weight increases slightly
following half-bloom; then, because
grain is forming rapidly, the stalk
loses weight. The loss in stalk weight
may account for as much as 10
percent of the grain weight.

Final yield depends on the rate that dry


matter accumulates in the grain and
the length of time that it accumulates.
As long as the hybrid is able to mature
before
frost,
the
dry
matter
accumulation
will
be
high
if
environmental conditions are favorable.
The selection of later maturing grain
sorghum hybrids has an advantage over
early maturing varieties if: 1) the
hybrid can mature before frost and 2)
flowering does not coincide with severe
moisture stress.

Dry matter accumulation rates


do not vary much among
hybrids.
Nitrogen and Phosphorus uptake
is still rapid and Potassium
uptake is close to 90 percent and
starting to decline.
Lower leaves are still being lost
with 8 to 12 functional leaves
remaining.

Hard-Dough Stage
By hard-dough
stage, about three-fourths of the
grain dry weight has accumulated.
Nutrient uptake
is
essentially
complete.
Severe moisture stress or a freeze
before the grain matures will result in
light, chaffy grain.
The stalk has declined to its lowest
weight. Additional leaves may have
been lost.

Physiological Maturity
Maximum total dry weight of the
plant has occurred. The time
from flowering to physiological
maturity varies with hybrid and
environmental
conditions;
however, it represents about
one-third of the total time from
planting.

Grain
moisture
content
at
physiological maturity is usually
between 25 and 35 percent, but
varies with hybrid and growing
conditions.
If temperature and moisture
conditions
are
favorable,
branches may start to grow from
several of the upper nodes
(places where leaves attach).

Physiological
maturity
can
be
determined by the dark spot on the
opposite side of the kernel from the
embryo. The kernel on the left is
physiologically mature; the one on
the right is not.
To reap maximum yields of silage or
high-moisture grain, harvest as near
to physiological maturity as possible.

The plant will not reach physiological


maturity and proper moisture content
for normal harvest at the same time.
The
time
required
between
physiological maturity and a grain
moisture suitable for harvest depends
on the hybrid and weather conditions.
Stalk weight may increase slightly near
physiological maturity.
After
physiological
maturity,
the
remaining functional leaves may stay
green or die and brown rapidly.
Nutrient uptake is basically complete.

The plants swoing can go from


85,000 to 150,000 plants by ha.
Depending on the seed that the
producers choose.

Diseases caused by bacteria.


Bacterial leaf stripe.- pathogen
Pseudomonas rubrisubalbicans
symptoms: irregularly shaped, dark
red lesions on leaves and leaf
sheaths.
Control suggested.- crop rotation,
destruction of crop residue and
planting
resistant
cultivars
or
hybrids.

Bacterial leaf spot.


Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae.

Initial symptoms consist en water


soacked spots on the lower leaves,
within a short period these irregular,
elliptic lesions
assume a reddish
hue.
Control : crop rotation, destruction of
infested debris and selection of seed
from disease- free plants.

Bacterial soft rot.


Pathogen Erwinia crysanthemi pv.
Chrysantemi.
Symptoms .-necrotic or heavily
pigmented stripes or blotches on
upper leaves; stalk and leaf tissue
rotted in whorls.

Diseases caused by fungi.


Seedling
diseases
.-damage
weathered or moldy seed .
Pathogens. Pythium spp. Fusarium
spp. Aspergillus spp. Rizoctonia spp.
Phoma spp.
Control.- captan, thiram, metalaxyl
and fosetyl Al. wich are systemic
products.

Leaf anthracnose .
Pathogen.-Glomerella graminicola.
Control.- the use of resistant
cultivars.

Gray leaf spot.


Pathogen C. sorghi Ell &Ev.
Control.- Use of tolerant or resistant
cultivars,
crop
rotation
and
sanitation to reduce surface residue
and kill surviving crop plants.

Panicle and grain anthracnose.


Pathogen.Colletotrichum
graminicola.
Control.- the destruction of primary
inoculum, use po pathogen free-seed
or seed treated with fungicides.

Storage molds .
Symptoms of damage
for a fungal
colonization
include
discoloration
in
grain(darkening) of the embryo or germ and
molding, heating and mustiness of the grain.
Causal organisms and mycotoxins: Aspergillus
spp. Penicillium spp. A.restrictus. A glaucus.
Control.- the most comun method is
prevention by drying or cooling the grain at
wich fungi cannot grow (moisture less than
13% and temperature below 5 Celcius
degrees).

Diseases caused by viruses and virus like organisms.

Barley yellow dwarf virus.- attack S.


bicolor.no
symptoms
shown.
Transmited by an aphid.
Panicum mosaic virus.- S.bicolor.symptoms: fain. Smaal clorotic
lesion.- by a mechanical transmition.
Rice stripe virus.-S. halapense.symptoms.- chlorosis,chlorotic strip.transmite by leafhopper.

Maize rough dwarf virus.S.bicolor.chlorosis

transmited by planthopper.
Maize mosaic virus.- S.bicolor.
chlorotic striping. Transmited
by planthopper.
Control.- cultural practices
that
minimize
the
virus
source.

Nematodes.
Symptoms:
Root knots or galls.
Root lesions.
Abnormal or reduced root
development.

Control.
Quarantine and sanitization.
Cultural practices (crop rotation).
Physical treatments (steam sterilization
or hot water dips).
Biological control (fungi, bacteria, insects
and predacious nematodes).
Use of resistant cultivars.
Chemical control(insecticide-nematicides
like carbamates and organophosphates).

Beneficial microorganisms.
Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae
(VAM). Endogenaceae.
Glomus.
Gigaspora.
Acaulospora.
Sclerocystis.

Insect pests.

Soil insects.
White grub Phylophaga crinite
(Burmeister).
Cut worm larvae.
Some species of climbing or army
cutworms.
Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi
Barber.

Foliage feeders.

Greenbug Schizaphis graminum (Rondani).


The corn leaf aphid Rhopalopsiphum
maidis (Fitch).
The sugar cane aphid Melanaphis sachari
(Zehntner).
The yellow sugar cane aphid Sipha flava
Forbes.
Shoot bug Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead).
The spittlebug Poophiluscostalis Walker.
The chinch bug Blissusleucopterus (Say).
Spider mites Oligonycus spp.

Stem feeders.
Pink borer Sesamia inferens Walker.
Sugar cane borer Diatraea spp.
Maize stalk borer Busseola fusca
Fuller.

Head feeders.
Larvae of sorghum midge Contarinia
sorghicola (Coquillett).
Larvae of cornearworm Heliothis zea
(Boddie).
Young larvae of sorghum webworm
Nola sorghiella

THANKS FOR YOUR TIME AND


ATENTION..