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THE

MUSCULOSKELETAL
SYSTEM
The Science of Human Movement

IF WE HAD NO BONES?

Video: https://youtu.be/_hyqlKVm2ks

LEARNING GOALS

1) You will learn what the musculoskeletal system is and


its main purpose.
2) You will be able to describe the three types of muscles
found in the human body.
3) You will be able to name the three different connective
tissues found in the musculoskeletal system and explain
their function.
4) You will be able to explain musculoskeletal specific
problems, how they are caused and how they can be
prevented.
5) You will understand the difference between vertebrates,
invertebrates, and exoskeletons.

THE HUMAN SKELETON

Musculoskeletal system supports


the body, protects delicate organs,
and makes movement possible.
The purpose of the skeleton is to
provide structure, support and
protection to the various organs
and systems necessary for life
A typical adult human skeleton
contains 206 bones

THE HUMAN SKELETON

Do infants have more or fewer bones


than adults?

THE HUMAN SKELETON

Do infants have more or fewer bones than


adults?
Answer: More! Many bones begin separated
but fuse together as humans develop. For
example, the bones of the skull begin
separated to allow for brain growth and
development.
(This is why babies heads are so vulnerable)

THE HUMAN SKELETON

Do infants have more or fewer bones


than adults?

STRUCTURAL FEATURES

The human skeleton


consists of three types of
connective tissue:
Bone Tissue
Ligaments
Cartilage
The Right Knee

BONES

Rigid and dense material which


contains living cells and non-living
minerals (mostly calcium and
phosphorus).
Canals in bones contain
nerves and blood vessels.

BONES

BONES

Due to the living cells,


bone can regenerate if
injured.
Only a small
percentage of bone
tissue is actually living
The Right Knee

BONE TISSUE

LIGAMENTS

Tough, elastic connective


tissues
Hold bones together,
especially where extra support
is necessary (ie. at joints)
Made up of collagen fibres
(non-living), so regeneration
after an injury is more difficult
The Right Knee

CARTILAGE

Made of special cells, surrounded


by collagen fibres (stretchy
elastic fibres). Limited
regeneration following injury
Strong and flexible, but they
contain special proteins that
decrease friction
Located where bones contact
each other
The Right Knee

HOW DO WE MOVE?

In small groups, consider the


following question:
What does your body do, in order for
you move from one place to another?

MUSCLE

The human body contains three


different types of muscle:
Cardiac Muscle is the muscle
lining the walls of the heart.
Smooth Muscle is the muscle lining
the digestive system (peristalsis)
The type specifically associated
with movement is called Skeletal
Muscle.

(Bundle of
Muscle fibres)

MUSCLE

SO HOW DO WE MOVE?

A Skeletal Muscle is connected to


one or more bones via Tendons,
which are like less elastic (but more
stable) versions of ligaments.
Muscles exert a force on bones and
cause them to move in response to
signals from the nervous system.
Muscles can pull, but never push

ANTAGONIST MUSCLES

In order to return a bone to its


original position, an opposing
muscle, or antagonist muscle must
pull it back

OSTEOPOROSIS

A bone disorder characterized by loss of


calcium
Affects people of all ages, women are
more prone to it

OSTEOPOROSIS

Painless, but weaker bones make


injuries more common, especially in the
elderly
Consuming foods with lots of calcium
and vitamin D help lessen the risk

OSTEOPOROSIS

STICKS AND STONES

Since the skeleton is central to the human


bodys support and protection, it
experiences many physical impacts and
stresses.
Severe impacts can tear ligaments,
tendons, muscles and fracture bones.
X-Rays are taken after a serious injury to
determine if a bone is fractured, and how

STICKS AND STONES

Left Arm
Broken ulna (Transverse Fracture)

IN OTHER NEWS

All vertebrates have musculoskeletal


systems similar to ours, with muscles
attached to bones beneath the skin.
Invertebrates (worms,
jellyfish etc.) have very
different systems, since
they have no rigid
frame and can change
shape.

EXOSKELETONS

Insects and arthropods wear their


skeleton outside of their skin (called an
exoskeleton).

QUIZ

1)What is the main purpose of the musculoskeletal


system?
2)What are the three types of muscles found in the
human body?
3)Name the three different connective tissues found in
the musculoskeletal system and briefly explain their
function.
4)What is osteoporosis, how is it caused and how can it
be prevented?
5)What technology is used to diagnose a
musculoskeletal-related injury such as a bone break?

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM


The Science of Human Senses

LEARNING GOALS

1)You will be able to explain the main purpose of the


nervous system.
2)You will be able to name the two main parts of the
nervous system and explain what each of these consist
of.
3)You will be able to name the three groups of nerves of
the peripheral nervous system.
4)You will be able to explain the causes of multiple
sclerosis and how this disease affects the nervous
system.
5)You will know what technology is used to diagnose
central nervous system-related injuries.

QUIZ

1)What is the main purpose of the nervous system?


2)What are the two main parts of the nervous
system and what do each consist of?
3)Name the three groups of nerves of the
peripheral nervous system.
4)What are the causes of multiple sclerosis and
how does this disease affect the nervous system?
5)What technology is used to diagnose central
nervous system-related injuries?