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Radius measurement

Prof.Md.Khaled khalil

Radius Measurement of Convex surface Using


Surface Plate and Rollers

Metrology

Radius Measurement Using Surface


Plate and roller
According to Pythagoras theorem
In right angled triangle, ABC

AC

d
R
2

AB BC
2

d
M d
R

2
2

M - d
From which R
8d

Metrology

Possible Error in the Radius


We Know

M d
R

2 Md d 2
M2 M d

8d
8d
8d
4 8
R
R
Error R
.M
.d
M
d
2

M d
M 2 d2

.M
.d
2
4d
8d
M d
2d .M M d .d

2
8d

Metrology

surface Using Surface Plate and


Rollers
A
(R
-d /
2)

(R-d/2-h)

(M-d)/2

h
M

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Dia.d

surface Using Surface Plate and


Rollers
AC 2 AB 2 BC 2

(R-d/2-h)

(M-d)/2
B

h
M

Metrology

Dia.d

d
R
2
d
R
2

M d
R h

2
2

2
M d
2
R a

2
2
2
d
M
Md
d
R 2 Rd
R 2 2 Ra a 2

4
4
2
4
2
M
Md
M M

2 Ra Rd a 2

a2
d
4
2
2 2

R 2a d a 2

M M

2 2

surface Using Surface Plate and


Rollers

Ball or Roller is used


Ball end is used
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Metrology

Radius Measurement by Fixed Roller


Instruments

Fig. Geometry of Fixed Roller Instrument


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Metrology

Possible Error in Radius

Fig. Geometry of Fixed Roller Instrument


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Metrology

Radius Measurement(concave
surface) by Fixed Roller Instruments
d
From Fig . a h
2

From right angled triangled ABC

AB 2 BC 2 AC 2
d
R
2

c
2
R a
2
2

d
c

R h
2
2

c
d h
From which , R

8h
2
2

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Metrology

R-

2
d/

B
h

C/2

R-a

Dia. d

C
C/2

Fig. Geometry of Fixed Roller Instrument

Radius Measurement by V-Plate


Instruments

In right angled triangle ABC

Rh

cosec
R
2

R h Rcosec
2

Rcosec R h
2

R cosec 1 h
2

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B
h

C
R
A
Fig. Plain V-Plate Instrument

h
1
Ah Where A
Constant

cosec 1
cos ec 1
2

Metrology

Advantages & Disadvantages of VPlate Instruments


Advantages:
Radius can be easily calculated by
multiplying the distance h by the
constant of the instrument.
Disadvantages:
The instrument used for any

particular work piece should be


chosen so that it embraces as
much of the arc as possible in
order to make the angle small. This
means that several instruments are
needed for work of different size.
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Metrology

It is virtually impossible to measure

apex of the Vee with sufficient


accuracy.
It is only used for large convex
structural work.
Remedial Measure
Either by incorporating a
micrometer on the centerline.
Or by forming a flat in the angle and
using slip gauges to measure
between the arc and the flat.

Possible error in the radius


We know R

h

cosec 1
2

With this instrument Possible error in the radius is

R
R
R
.h
.
h

h.cosec . cot .
h
2
2

cos ec 1
2
cos
ec

2
2

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Metrology

B
h

C
R
A
Fig. Plain V-Plate Instrument

Modified v-Plate Instruments

h
R

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Metrology

Radius Measurement by Modified VPlate Instruments


We know R

H a

cos ec 1
2

cos ec 1
2
H
a

AH B

cos ec 1 cos ec 1
2
2

Where A and B are constants for the instrument


The distance a is determined by measuring the gap H
with the instrument applied to an arc of known radius r

15

H
a

a r cos ec 1 H

cos ec 1 cos ec 1
2
2
Metrology

Fig. Modified V-Plate Instruments

Measurement of Radius of a
concave surface by Dynamical
Method

The restoring force P mg . sin

I
Ia
Ia
P mg
ma 2 Or mg . sin ma 2
r
r
r
1
mr 2 a
ma 3
2 g
mg . ma 2 2
ma
ma a
r
2
2
3
This shows that acceleration is proportional to the
displacement(a) and therefore the motion is Simple Harmonic
The time of one oscillation is T 2

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Metrology

Displacement
Accelereation

Fig: Oscillating Roller on Concave


Arc

Measurement of Radius of a
concave surface by Dynamical
Method

T 2

R r

3 R r
2
2 g / 3
2g

3
R

r
T
g
2
2
Or T 4
Or
Rr
2
2g
6

T 2g
2
R
r 165.66T r millimeters
2
6
(When T is in seconds)
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Metrology

Fig: Oscillating Roller on Concave


Arc

Measurement of Radius of a Convex


Surface by Dynamical Method

Fig: Oscillating Bar on Convex Arc


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Metrology

Measurement of Radius of a Convex


Surface by Dynamical Method

y h. sin
x R. sin h. sin R h sin Very nearly

Restoring Torque mgx mg R h sin

Moment of inertia of the rod I m k 2 h 2


Angular acceleration

T mg R h . sin

I
m k 2 h 2
g R h
2
( for small values of )
2
k h

Fig: Oscillating Bar on Convex Arc


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Metrology

Measurement of Radius of a Convex


Surface by Dynamical Method
g R h
Angular acceleration 2
Constant.
2
k h

This is proportional to angular displacement,


hence the motion is Simple Harmonic
Displacement
T 2
2
Acceleration

k 2 h2
2
g R h
g R h
k 2 h2

For Rectangular Bar of length L and thickness t(=2h)

L2 t 2
k
12
2

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Metrology

Fig: Oscillating Bar on Convex Arc

Measurement of Radius of a Convex


Surface by Dynamical Method
L2 4t 2
L2 4t 2
2
2
T 2
0r T 4
t
t

12 g R
12 g R
2
2

2
2
2
t

4
t

or R
2
2
3
gT

L2 4t 2 1
2 L2 4t 2 t
t
R
0.000335
2
2
3 gT
2
T

2
Fig: Oscillating Bar on Convex Arc
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Metrology

Measurement of Radius of a Convex


Surface by Dynamical Method
L 4t t L 4 t
t
We know R

3 gT 2

2 2

2 2

3 gT 2

3 gT 2

R
R
R
The possible error in the radius R
.T
.L
.t
T
L

2 2 L2
8 2t 2
2 2 L
8 2t
1
R
.T
.T
.L
.t .t
3
3
2
2
3 gT
3 gT
3 gT
3 gT
2
2 2

3 gT 2
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Metrology

1
4t 2
.T L.L 4t.t .t
T
2

Measurement of Radius by Coordinate Method

The equation of a circle on rectangular co-ordinates

x y 2 fx 2 gy c 0
2

Or x 2 fx f y 2 gy g f g c 0
2

Or x f y g
2

Where R
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Metrology

f g c
2

f g c
2

Measurement of Radius by Coordinate Method

Fig.: The co-ordinate method for calculating the radius of an arc


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Metrology

Measurement of Radius by Coordinate Method

If the co-ordinates of A are (0,0), of B(x1,y1), and of C(x2,y2) then

x y 2 fx1 2 gy1 0 and x y 2 fx2 2 gy2 0


2
1

2
1

2
2

R
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Metrology

2
1

f g
2

2
1

2
2

2
2

c 0 for point A

y x1 x2 y1 y2
2 x1 y2 x2 y1
2
2

The End

Thank You !

26

Metrology