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Prof.Md.Khaled khalil

## Radius Measurement of Convex surface Using

Surface Plate and Rollers

Metrology

Plate and roller
According to Pythagoras theorem
In right angled triangle, ABC

AC

d
R
2

AB BC
2

d
M d
R

2
2

M - d
From which R
8d

Metrology

We Know

M d
R

2 Md d 2
M2 M d

8d
8d
8d
4 8
R
R
Error R
.M
.d
M
d
2

M d
M 2 d2

.M
.d
2
4d
8d
M d
2d .M M d .d

2
8d

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Rollers
A
(R
-d /
2)

(R-d/2-h)

(M-d)/2

h
M

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Dia.d

Rollers
AC 2 AB 2 BC 2

(R-d/2-h)

(M-d)/2
B

h
M

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Dia.d

d
R
2
d
R
2

M d
R h

2
2

2
M d
2
R a

2
2
2
d
M
Md
d
R 2 Rd
R 2 2 Ra a 2

4
4
2
4
2
M
Md
M M

2 Ra Rd a 2

a2
d
4
2
2 2

R 2a d a 2

M M

2 2

Rollers

Ball end is used
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Metrology

Instruments

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Metrology

## Fig. Geometry of Fixed Roller Instrument

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Metrology

surface) by Fixed Roller Instruments
d
From Fig . a h
2

AB 2 BC 2 AC 2
d
R
2

c
2
R a
2
2

d
c

R h
2
2

c
d h
From which , R

8h
2
2

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Metrology

R-

2
d/

B
h

C/2

R-a

Dia. d

C
C/2

Instruments

## In right angled triangle ABC

Rh

cosec
R
2

R h Rcosec
2

Rcosec R h
2

R cosec 1 h
2

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B
h

C
R
A
Fig. Plain V-Plate Instrument

h
1
Ah Where A
Constant

cosec 1
cos ec 1
2

Metrology

Radius can be easily calculated by
multiplying the distance h by the
constant of the instrument.
The instrument used for any

## particular work piece should be

chosen so that it embraces as
much of the arc as possible in
order to make the angle small. This
means that several instruments are
needed for work of different size.
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Metrology

## apex of the Vee with sufficient

accuracy.
It is only used for large convex
structural work.
Remedial Measure
Either by incorporating a
micrometer on the centerline.
Or by forming a flat in the angle and
using slip gauges to measure
between the arc and the flat.

We know R

h

cosec 1
2

## With this instrument Possible error in the radius is

R
R
R
.h
.
h

h.cosec . cot .
h
2
2

cos ec 1
2
cos
ec

2
2

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Metrology

B
h

C
R
A
Fig. Plain V-Plate Instrument

h
R

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Metrology

## Radius Measurement by Modified VPlate Instruments

We know R

H a

cos ec 1
2

cos ec 1
2
H
a

AH B

cos ec 1 cos ec 1
2
2

## Where A and B are constants for the instrument

The distance a is determined by measuring the gap H
with the instrument applied to an arc of known radius r

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H
a

a r cos ec 1 H

cos ec 1 cos ec 1
2
2
Metrology

## Fig. Modified V-Plate Instruments

concave surface by Dynamical
Method

## The restoring force P mg . sin

I
Ia
Ia
P mg
ma 2 Or mg . sin ma 2
r
r
r
1
mr 2 a
ma 3
2 g
mg . ma 2 2
ma
ma a
r
2
2
3
This shows that acceleration is proportional to the
displacement(a) and therefore the motion is Simple Harmonic
The time of one oscillation is T 2

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Metrology

Displacement
Accelereation

## Fig: Oscillating Roller on Concave

Arc

concave surface by Dynamical
Method

T 2

R r

3 R r
2
2 g / 3
2g

3
R

r
T
g
2
2
Or T 4
Or
Rr
2
2g
6

T 2g
2
R
r 165.66T r millimeters
2
6
(When T is in seconds)
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Metrology

Arc

## Measurement of Radius of a Convex

Surface by Dynamical Method

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Metrology

## Measurement of Radius of a Convex

Surface by Dynamical Method

y h. sin
x R. sin h. sin R h sin Very nearly

## Moment of inertia of the rod I m k 2 h 2

Angular acceleration

T mg R h . sin

I
m k 2 h 2
g R h
2
( for small values of )
2
k h

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Metrology

## Measurement of Radius of a Convex

Surface by Dynamical Method
g R h
Angular acceleration 2
Constant.
2
k h

## This is proportional to angular displacement,

hence the motion is Simple Harmonic
Displacement
T 2
2
Acceleration

k 2 h2
2
g R h
g R h
k 2 h2

L2 t 2
k
12
2

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Metrology

## Measurement of Radius of a Convex

Surface by Dynamical Method
L2 4t 2
L2 4t 2
2
2
T 2
0r T 4
t
t

12 g R
12 g R
2
2

2
2
2
t

4
t

or R
2
2
3
gT

L2 4t 2 1
2 L2 4t 2 t
t
R
0.000335
2
2
3 gT
2
T

2
Fig: Oscillating Bar on Convex Arc
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Metrology

## Measurement of Radius of a Convex

Surface by Dynamical Method
L 4t t L 4 t
t
We know R

3 gT 2

2 2

2 2

3 gT 2

3 gT 2

R
R
R
The possible error in the radius R
.T
.L
.t
T
L

2 2 L2
8 2t 2
2 2 L
8 2t
1
R
.T
.T
.L
.t .t
3
3
2
2
3 gT
3 gT
3 gT
3 gT
2
2 2

3 gT 2
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Metrology

1
4t 2
.T L.L 4t.t .t
T
2

## The equation of a circle on rectangular co-ordinates

x y 2 fx 2 gy c 0
2

Or x 2 fx f y 2 gy g f g c 0
2

Or x f y g
2

Where R
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f g c
2

f g c
2

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Metrology

2
1

2
1

2
2

R
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Metrology

2
1

f g
2

2
1

2
2

2
2

c 0 for point A

y x1 x2 y1 y2
2 x1 y2 x2 y1
2
2

The End

Thank You !

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Metrology