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Chapter 1

Biology: Exploring Life


PowerPoint Lectures

Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, Eighth Edition


REECE TAYLOR SIMON DICKEY HOGAN
2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture by Edward J. Zalisko

Introduction
Snowy owls exhibit adaptations for life in their
frozen, barren habit, including
feathers that provide insulation in subzero weather
and
keen vision and acute hearing that help owls locate
prey.

Snowy owls are the result of evolution, the process


that has transformed life from its earliest
beginnings.

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Figure 1.0-1

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THEMES IN THE STUDY OF BIOLOGY

THEMES IN THE STUDY OF


BIOLOGY

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1.1 All forms of life share common properties


Biology is the scientific study of life.
Properties of life include
1. Orderthe highly ordered structure that typifies
life,
2. Reproductionthe ability of organisms to
reproduce their own kind,
3. Growth and developmentconsistent growth
and development controlled by inherited DNA,
4. Energy processingthe use of chemical energy
to power an organisms activities and chemical
reactions,
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1.1 All forms of life share common properties


5. Regulationan ability to control an organisms
internal environment within limits that sustain life,
6. Response to the environmentan ability to
respond to environmental stimuli, and
7. Evolutionary adaptationadaptations evolve
over many generations, as individuals with traits
best suited to their environments have greater
reproductive success and pass their traits to
offspring.

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Video: Sea Horses

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Figure 1.1-0

(1) Order

(5) Regulation

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(2) Reproduction

(6) Response to the


environment

(3) Growth and


development

(4) Energy
processing

(7) Evolutionary adaptation

Figure 1.1-1

Order

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Figure 1.1-2

Reproduction

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Figure 1.1-3

Growth and development

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Figure 1.1-4

Energy processing

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Figure 1.1-5

Regulation

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Figure 1.1-6

Response to the
environment

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Figure 1.1-7

Evolutionary adaptation

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1.2 In lifes hierarchy of organization, new


properties emerge at each level
Biological organization unfolds as follows:
Biosphereall of the environments on Earth that
support life,
Ecosystemall the organisms living in a particular
area and the physical components with which the
organisms interact,
Communitythe entire array of organisms living in
a particular ecosystem,
Populationall the individuals of a species living
in a specific area,
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1.2 In lifes hierarchy of organization, new


properties emerge at each level
Organisman individual living thing,
Organ systemseveral organs that cooperate in a
specific function,
Organa structure that is composed of tissues,
Tissuea group of similar cells that perform a
specific function,
Cellthe fundamental unit of life,

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1.2 In lifes hierarchy of organization, new


properties emerge at each level
Organellea membrane-enclosed structure that
performs a specific function within a cell, and
Moleculea cluster of small chemical units called
atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Figure 1.2-0
Biosphere
Florida

Ecosystem
Florida
Everglades

Community
All organisms in this
wetland ecosystem

Population
All alligators living
in the wetlands

Organism
an American alligator

Nerve

Brain

Spinal
cord

Organ system
Nervous system

Organ
Brain

Tissue
Nervous tissue
Atom
Cell
Nerve cell

Nucleus
Organelle
Nucleus

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Molecule
DNA

Figure 1.2-1

Biosphere
Florida

Ecosystem
Florida
Everglades

Community
All organisms in this
wetland ecosystem

Population
All alligators living
in the wetlands

Organism
an American alligator

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Figure 1.2-2

Organism
an American alligator

Nerve

Spinal
cord

Brain

Organ system
Nervous system

Organ
Brain

Tissue
Nervous tissue

Cell
Nerve cell

Atom

Nucleus
Organelle
Nucleus

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Molecule
DNA

Figure 1.2-3

Biosphere

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Figure 1.2-4

Community:
All the organisms in this
wetland ecosystem

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Figure 1.2-5

Population:
All alligators living in
the wetlands

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Figure 1.2-6

Atom

Molecule: DNA

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1.2 In lifes hierarchy of organization, new


properties emerge at each level
Emergent properties are new properties that
arise in each step upward in the hierarchy of life
from the arrangement and interactions among
component parts.

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1.3 Cells are the structural and functional


units of life
Cells are the level at which the properties of life
emerge.
A cell can

regulate its internal environment,


take in and use energy,
respond to its environment,
develop and maintain its complex organization, and
give rise to new cells.

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1.3 Cells are the structural and functional


units of life
All cells
are enclosed by a membrane that regulates the
passage of materials between the cell and its
surroundings and
use DNA as their genetic information.

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1.3 Cells are the structural and functional


units of life
There are two basic forms of cells.
1. Prokaryotic cells
were the first to evolve,
are simpler, and
are usually smaller than eukaryotic cells.

2. Eukaryotic cells
are found in plants, animals, fungi, and protists and
are subdivided by membranes into various functional
compartments, or organelles, including a nucleus
that houses the DNA.
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Figure 1.3

Prokaryotic cell
Eukaryotic cell

DNA
(no nucleus)
Membrane

Organelles
Nucleus
(membraneenclosed)
DNA (throughout
nucleus)

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1.3 Cells are the structural and functional


units of life
Systems biology is the study of a biological
system and the modeling of its dynamic behavior,
ranging from the functioning of the biosphere to
the complex molecular machinery of an organelle.

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1.3 Cells are the structural and functional


units of life
Cells illustrate another theme in biology: the
correlation of structure and function.
Structure is related to function at all levels of
biological organization.

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1.4 Organisms interact with their


environment, exchanging matter and energy
Living organisms interact with their environments,
which include
other organisms and
physical factors.

In most ecosystems,
plants are the producers that provide the food,
consumers eat plants and other animals, and
decomposers act as recyclers, changing complex
matter into simpler chemicals that plants can
absorb and use.
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1.4 Organisms interact with their


environment, exchanging matter and energy
The dynamics of ecosystems include two major
processes:
1. the recycling of chemical nutrients from the
atmosphere and soil through producers,
consumers, and decomposers back to the air and
soil and
2. the one-way flow of energy through an
ecosystem, entering as sunlight and exiting as
heat.

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Figure 1.4-0

ENERGY FLOW
Sun
Inflow of
light energy

Outflow of
heat

Consumers
(animals)

Producers
(plants)

Leaves take up
CO2 from air; roots
absorb H2O and
minerals from soil
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Chemical energy
in food

Decomposers such
as worms, fungi,
and bacteria return
chemicals to soil

Figure 1.4-1

ENERGY FLOW
Sun
Inflow of
light energy

Outflow of
heat

Consumers
(animals)

Producers
(plants)

Leaves take up
CO2 from air; roots
absorb H2O and
minerals from soil
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Chemical energy
in food

Decomposers such
as worms, fungi,
and bacteria return
chemicals to soil

Figure 1.4-2

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EVOLUTION, THE CORE


THEME OF BIOLOGY

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1.5 The unity of life is based on DNA and a


common genetic code
All cells have DNA, the chemical substance of
genes.
Genes
are the unit of inheritance that transmit information
from parents to offspring,
are grouped into very long DNA molecules called
chromosomes, and
control the activities of a cell.

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1.5 The unity of life is based on DNA and a


common genetic code
A species genes are coded in the sequences of
the four kinds of building blocks making up DNAs
double helix.
All forms of life use essentially the same code to
translate the information stored in DNA into
proteins.
The diversity of life arises from differences in DNA
sequences.

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Figure 1.5-0

Cell
Nucleus
DNA

C
C
G

A
A

T
C

G
A

T
A

C
G

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T
T
T

Figure 1.5-1

Cell
Nucleus
DNA

C
C
G
G

A
A

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Figure 1.5-2

G
A

T
A

C
G

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A
G

T
T
T

1.5 The unity of life is based on DNA and a


common genetic code
The entire library of genetic instructions that an
organism inherits is called its genome.
In recent years, scientists have determined the
entire sequence of nucleotides in the human
genome.

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1.6 The diversity of life can be arranged into


three domains
We can think of biologys enormous scope as
having two dimensions.
1. The vertical dimension is the size scale that
stretches from molecules to the biosphere.
2. The horizontal dimension spans across the
great diversity of organisms existing now and
over the long history of life on Earth.

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1.6 The diversity of life can be arranged into


three domains
Diversity is the hallmark of life.
Biologists have identified about 1.8 million species.
Estimates of the actual number of species range
from 10 million to over 100 million.

Taxonomy is the branch of biology that


names species and
classifies species into a hierarchy of broader
groups: genus, family, order, class, phylum, and
kingdom.

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1.6 The diversity of life can be arranged into


three domains
The diversity of life can be arranged into three
higher levels called domains.
1. Bacteria are the most diverse and widespread
prokaryotes.
2. Archaea are prokaryotes that often live in Earths
extreme environments.
3. Eukarya have eukaryotic cells and include
single-celled protists and
multicellular fungi, animals, and plants.

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Figure 1.6-0

Domain Bacteria

Domain Eukarya

Bacteria
Domain Archaea

Protists
(multiple kingdoms)

Kingdom Plantae

Kingdom Fungi

Kingdom Animalia

Archaea

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Figure 1.6-1

Domain Bacteria

Bacteria

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Figure 1.6-2

Domain Archaea

Archaea

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Figure 1.6-3

Domain Eukarya

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Protists
(multiple kingdoms)

Kingdom Plantae

Kingdom Fungi

Kingdom Animalia

Figure 1.6-4

Protists
(multiple kingdoms)

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Figure 1.6-5

Kingdom Plantae

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Figure 1.6-6

Kingdom Fungi

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Figure 1.6-7

Kingdom Animalia

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1.7 Evolution explains the unity and diversity


of life
Evolution can be defined as the process of
change that has transformed life on Earth from its
earliest beginnings to the diversity of organisms
living today.
The fossil record documents
that life has been evolving on Earth for billions of
years and
the pattern of ancestry.

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Figure 1.7a

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1.7 Evolution explains the unity and diversity


of life
In 1859, Charles Darwin published the book On
the Origin of Species by Means of Natural
Selection, which articulated two main points.
1.

Species living today descended from ancestral


species in what Darwin called descent
with
modification.
2. Natural selection is a mechanism for evolution.

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Video: Galpagos Island Overview

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Video: Galpagos Marine Iguana

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Video: Galpagos Sea Lion

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Video: Galpagos Tortoise

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Figure 1.7b

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Figure 1.7c-0

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Figure 1.7c-1

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Figure 1.7c-2

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Figure 1.7c-3

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1.7 Evolution explains the unity and diversity


of life
Natural selection was inferred by connecting two
observations.
1.

2.

Individual variation: Individuals in a population


vary in their traits, many of which are passed
on from parents to offspring.
Overproduction of offspring: A population can
produce far more offspring than the environment
can support.

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Video: Blue-footed Boobies Courtship Ritual

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Video: Albatross Courtship Ritual

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Video: Soaring Hawk

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1.7 Evolution explains the unity and diversity


of life
From these observations, Darwin drew two
inferences.
1.

Unequal reproductive success: Individuals with


heritable traits best suited to the environment
are more likely to survive and reproduce
than less well-suited individuals.
2. Accumulation of favorable traits over time: As a
result of this unequal reproductive success over
many generations, an increasing proportion of
individuals in a population will have the
advantageous traits.
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Figure 1.7d-1

1 Population with varied

inherited traits.

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Figure 1.7d-2

1 Population with varied

inherited traits.

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2 Elimination of

individuals with certain


traits and reproduction
of survivors.

Figure 1.7d-3

1 Population with varied

inherited traits.

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2 Elimination of

individuals with certain


traits and reproduction
of survivors.

3 Increasing frequency

of traits that enhance


survival and
reproductive success.

1.7 Evolution explains the unity and diversity


of life
Darwin realized that numerous small changes in
populations as a result of natural selection could
eventually lead to major alterations of species.
The fossil record provides evidence of such
diversification of species from ancestral species.

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Figure 1.7e-0

Deinotherium

Mammut

Platybelodon

Stegodon

Mammuthus

Elephas
maximus
(Asia)
Loxodonta
africana
(Africa)
Loxodonta cyclotis
(Africa)
34

24

Millions of
years ago
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5.5 2 104 0

Years
ago

Figure 1.7e-1

Deinotherium

Mammut

Platybelodon

Stegodon
34

24

Millions of
years ago
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5.5 2 104 0

Years
ago

Figure 1.7e-2

Mammuthus

Elephas
maximus
(Asia)
Loxodonta
africana
(Africa)
Loxodonta cyclotis
(Africa)
34

24

Millions of
years ago
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5.5 2 104 0

Years
ago

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE

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1.8 In studying nature, scientists make


observations and form and test hypotheses
Science is a way of knowing that stems from our
curiosity about ourselves and the world around us.
Science is based upon inquiry, the search for
information and explanations of natural
phenomena.
Scientists typically
make observations,
form hypotheses, proposed explanations for a set
of observations, and
test them.
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1.8 In studying nature, scientists make


observations and form and test hypotheses
Two types of data are frequently collected in
scientific investigations.
1.
2.

Qualitative data is descriptive.


Quantitative data includes numerical
measurements.

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1.8 In studying nature, scientists make


observations and form and test hypotheses
Scientists use two types of reasoning.
1. Inductive reasoning makes generalizations based
on collecting and analyzing a large number of
specific observations.
2. Deductive reasoning flows from general premises
to predicted and specific results.

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1.8 In studying nature, scientists make


observations and form and test hypotheses
We solve everyday problems by using hypotheses.
A common example would be the reasoning we use
to answer the question, Why doesnt a flashlight
work?
Two reasonable hypotheses are that
1. the batteries are dead or
2. the bulb is burned out.

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Figure 1.8-1

Observation:
Flashlight doesnt work.

Question:
Why doesnt the
flashlight work?

Hypothesis #1:
Batteries are dead.

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Hypothesis #2:
Bulb is burned out.

Figure 1.8-2

Observation:
Flashlight doesnt work.

Question:
Why doesnt the
flashlight work?

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Hypothesis #1:
Batteries are dead.

Hypothesis #2:
Bulb is burned out.

Prediction:
Replacing batteries
will fix problem.

Prediction:
Replacing bulb
will fix problem.

Test of prediction:
Replace batteries.

Test of prediction:
Replace bulb.

Figure 1.8-3

Observation:
Flashlight doesnt work.

Question:
Why doesnt the
flashlight work?

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Hypothesis #1:
Batteries are dead.

Hypothesis #2:
Bulb is burned out.

Prediction:
Replacing batteries
will fix problem.

Prediction:
Replacing bulb
will fix problem.

Test of prediction:
Replace batteries.

Test of prediction:
Replace bulb.

Results:
Flashlight doesnt work.
Hypothesis is contradicted.

Results:
Flashlight works.
Hypothesis is supported.

1.8 In studying nature, scientists make


observations and form and test hypotheses
A scientific theory is
much broader in scope than a hypothesis and
supported by a large and usually growing body of
evidence.

Science is a social activity in which scientists


work in teams,
share information through peer-reviewed
publications, meetings, and personal
communication, and
build on and confirm each others work.
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1.9 SCIENTIFIC THINKING: Hypotheses can


be tested using controlled field studies
Scientists conducted a controlled experiment to
test the hypothesis that color patterns have
evolved as adaptations that protect animals from
predation.
The experiment compared an experimental group
consisting of noncamouflaged mice models and a
control group consisting of camouflaged models
that matched the mice native to each area.
The groups differed by only one factor, the
coloration of the mouse models.
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Figure 1.9-0

Beach population

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Inland population

Figure 1.9-1

Beach population

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Figure 1.9-2

Inland population

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1.9 SCIENTIFIC THINKING: Hypotheses can


be tested using controlled field studies
As presented in Table 1.9,
the noncamouflaged models had a much higher
percentage of attacks in the beach and inland
habitats and
these data fit the key prediction of the camouflage
hypothesis.

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Table 1.9

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BIOLOGY AND EVERYDAY LIFE

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1.10 EVOLUTION CONNECTION: Evolution is


connected to our everyday lives
Evolution is a core theme of biology.
Humans selectively breed plants and animals in
the process of artificial selection to produce
move productive crops,
better livestock, and
a great variety of pets that bear little resemblance
to their wild ancestors.

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1.10 EVOLUTION CONNECTION: Evolution is


connected to our everyday lives
Humans also unintentionally cause
the evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria,
the evolution of pesticide-resistant pests, and
the loss of species through habitat loss and global
climate change.

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Figure 1.10

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1.11 CONNECTION: Biology, technology, and


society are connected in important ways
Many issues facing society
are related to biology and
often involve our expanding technology.

The basic goals of science and technology differ.


The goal of science is to understand natural
phenomena.
The goal of technology is to apply scientific
knowledge for some specific purpose.

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1.11 CONNECTION: Biology, technology, and


society are connected in important ways
Although their goals differ, science and technology
are interdependent.
Research benefits from new technologies.
Technological advances stem from scientific
research.

Technologies of DNA manipulation are the results


of scientific discovery of the structure of DNA.

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You should now be able to


1. Describe seven properties common to all life.
2. Describe the levels of biological organization from
molecules to the biosphere, noting the
interrelationships between levels.
3. Define the concept of emergent properties and
describe an example of it.
4. Explain why cells are a special level in biological
organization. Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic
cells.
5. Compare the dynamics of nutrients and energy in an
ecosystem.
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You should now be able to


6. Explain how DNA encodes a cells information.
7. Compare the three domains of life.
8. Describe the process and products of natural
selection.
9. Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative
data.
10. Compare the definitions and use of inductive and
deductive reasoning in scientific investigations.
11. Distinguish between a scientific theory and a
hypothesis.
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You should now be able to


12. Describe the structure of a controlled experiment
and give an example.
13. Explain how evolution impacts the lives of all
humans.
14. Compare the goals of science and technology.
Explain why an understanding of science is essential
to our lives.

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Figure 1.UN01

ENERGY FLOW

Light

Heat

Consumer

Producers
Chemical
energy

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Figure 1.UN02

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Figure 1.UN03

Observations

Inferences

Heritable
variations

Natural selection:
Unequal reproductive
success leads to
evolution of adaptations
in populations.

Overproduction
of offspring

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Figure 1.UN04

Biology
is the study of

(a)
has changed
through the process of

(b)
mechanism is
accounts
for

depends on

DNA
(genetic code)

(c)
leads to

codes for

(e)

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is evidence of

(d)

diversity of life
seen in

accounts
for

seen in
variations in

cells as basic
units of life

seen in

common properties
of living organisms

Average time to
complete maze (min)

Figure 1.UN05

25
20
15
10
5
0

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No reward
Food reward

3
4
Day