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DENSE

MEDIUM
SEPARATION

DENSE MEDIUM SEPARATION (DMS)


It is a physical separation technology which relies on the
difference in material densities to separate different materials.
The mixed solids are placed in a liquid denser than one and
less dense than others.
The denser material sinks while the less dense material floats.
DMS is the most straight-forward technique for separating
particles based on their densities.
Also known as Heavy Media Separation (HMS)

SEPARATING VESSELS
Gravitational vessels (static-baths)
Centrifugal vessels (dynamic)

GRAVITATIONAL VESSELS
Gravitational units comprise some form of vessel into
which the feed and medium are introduced and the
floats are removed by paddles or merely by overflow.
The aim is to discharge the sinks particles without
removing sufficient of the medium to cause disturbing
downward currents in the vessel.

WEMCO CONE SEPARATOR


It is widely used for ore treatment since it has a
relatively high sinks capacity.
Accommodates feed particles of up to 10cm in
diameter with capacities of up to 500 t/h.

WORKING MECHANISM
The feed is introduced
on the surface of the
medium by free fall.
The medium is kept in
suspension
by
the
gentle agitation of the
rakes,
which
are
mounted on the central
shaft.

DRUM SEPARATOR
Built in several sizes up to 4.3m diameter by 6m long,
with maximum capacities of 450t/h.
Can treat feeds of up to 30cm in diameter.
Drum separators are inherently more suited to the
treatment of metallic ores, where sinks product is
normally 60-80% of the feed, rather than to coal,
where the sinks product is only 5-20%.

WORKING MECHANISM
Separation is accomplished
by the continuous removal of
the sink product through the
action of lifters fixed to the
inside of the rotating drum.
The lifters empty into the
sink launder when passing
the horizontal position.
Longitudinal
partitions
separate the float surface
from the sink-discharge
action of the revolving lifters.

WORKING MECHANISM
Two
drum
separators
mounted integrally and
rotating
together,
one
feeding the other.
The lighter medium in the
first compartment separates
a pure float product.
The sink product is lifted
and conveyed into the
second compartment where
the middling and the true
sinks are separated.

DREWBOY BATH
Widely used in the UK coal industry because of its
high floats capacity.
It is a wheeled dense-medium separator, where the
mixture is separated into two products. The densemedium suspension consists of water and magnetite of
the required concentration

WORKING MECHANISM
The raw coal is fed into the
separator at one end.
Floats are discharged from
the opposite end by a starwheel
with
suspended
rubber while sinks are lifted
out from the bottom of the
bath by radial-vaned wheel
mounted on an inclined
shaft.
.

NORWALT WASHER
This type of separator was developed in South Africa
and most installations are to be found in that country.
Raw coal is introduced into the center of the annular
separating vessel, which is provided with stirring
arms.

WORKING MECHANISM
Floats are carried by
stirrers, and are discharged
over a weir on the other side
of the vessel.
The discard sinks at the
bottom of the vessel and is
dragged along by scrapers
attached to the bottom of
the stirring arms.
The discard is discharged
via a hole in the bottom of
the bath.

TESKA BATH
Developed in Germany, uses a rotating bucket wheel
to remove coal reject.
It is a heavy medium separator used for coal of +6mm
size with capacities up to 800 t/h.
A very special feature of the machine is the large bath
width related to size of the machine. Feed sizes up to
1200mm edge length can be processed in this machine.
If magnetite is used as the heavy medium then it will
allow the use of medium densities up to 2.3 g/cm3.

CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS
Cyclone dense medium separators have now become
widely used in the treatment of ores and coal.
Much finer separations can be achieved than in
gravitational separators.
Feed to these devices is typically de-slimed at about 0.5
mm.
Good separations can be achieved for coal particles as fine
as 0.1mm, below this size separation efficiency is very
low.

CYCLONE DENSE MEDIUM


SEPARATORS
Widely used in the treatment of ores and coal.
Provides a high centrifugal force and low viscosity in
the medium, enabling much finer separations to be
achieved than in gravitational separators.
Feed is typically de-slimed at about 0.5mm, to avoid
contamination of the medium with slimes, and to
minimize medium consumption.

The DM Cyclone has


similar principle of
operation to that of the
conventional
hydrocyclone.
The ore or coal is
suspended
in
the
medium
and
is
introduced tangentially
to the cyclone either via
a pump or it is gravity
fed.

Dense
material
is
centrifuged
to
the
cyclone wall and exits at
the apex.
Light product floats to
the flow around the axis
and exits via the vortex
finder.

VORSYL SEPARATOR
Coal preparation plant
Treatment of small coal sizes about 50mm at feed
rates of up to 120t/h.
The separating medium is magnetite (Fe2O3).
It separates the material on the basis of specific
gravity.

The material is introduced


by an involute.
The material of SG less than
that of the medium passes in
to the clean coal outlet via a
vortex finder.
The higher the gravity
materials move to the wall
vessel due to centrifugal
acceleration.
The movement of particles
is spiral.

LARCODEMS
Large Coal Dense Medium Separator
It is used for large coal.
Its capacity is 250t/h and its diameter is 1.2m and length
is 3m.
Treatment of raw coal up to 100mm.
The unit consists of a cylindrical chamber which is
inclined at approximately 30 to the horizontal.

Feed medium is introduced


under pressure by pump.
At the top of vessel is an
involute tangential outlet
connected to the vortex
tractor.
Raw coal of 0.5 to 100mm is
feed in by the chute.
High
relative
density
particles pass rapidly to the
separator wall and are
removed through the top
involute outlet and the
vortex tractor.

DYNA WHIRLPOOL SEPARATOR


Used for treating fine coal, diamonds, fluorspar, tin,
and lead-zinc ores, in the size range 0.5-30mm.
Its capacity is 100t/h.
Its maintenance is low and its operating cost is lower.
It has much sink capacity.

It consists of a cylindrical
shell
having
identical
tangential inlet and outlet
sections at either end.
Operated in an inclined
position and medium of the
required density is pumped
under pressure into the lower
outlet.
The rotating medium creates
a vortex throughout the
length of the unit and leaves
via the upper tangential
discharge and the lower
vortex tube.

Raw feed entering the upper


vortex tube.
Float material passes down
the vortex and does no
contact the outer walls of the
unit, thus greatly reducing
wear.
The float discharge from
lower vortex tube.
The heavy sink particles of
the feed penetrate the rising
medium towards the outer
wall of the unit and are
discharged with medium
through the discharge pipe.

TRI-FLO SEPARATOR
The Tri-flo separator is regarded as two Dyna
Whirlpool separators joined in series.
It is used in a number of coal, metallic ferrous, and
non-metallic ore treatment plants.
Its capacity is high than whirlpool.

Involute medium inlets and


sink outlets are used, which
produce less turbulence than
tangential inlets.
The device can be operated
with two media of differing
densities in order to produce
sink products of individual
controllable densities.
Two-stage treatment using a
single
medium
density
produces a float and two sinks
products with only slightly
different separation densities.

With metallic ferrous ores, the


second sink product can be
regarded as a scavenging stage
for the dense minerals.
The second product is recrushed and after de-sliming,
returned for treatment.
The separator is used for
washing coal, the second stage
cleans the float to produce a
higher grade product.
Two stages of separation also
increase the sharpness of
separation.