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FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT : DESIGN AND

COST ANALYSIS

MASTEROFTECHNOLOGY
in

TransportationEngineering
by
BHASKARDHAR
(ScholarNo.-13-21-319)
Underthesupervisionof

Prof.M.Ali.Ahmed

DEPARTMENTOFCIVILENGINEERING
NATIONALINSTITUTEOFTECHNOLOGYSILCHAR
May2015

Content:

Introduction
Objectives and scope of present study
Literature review
Methodology
Survey and soil Investigation
Design of road section
Cost analysis
Conclusion and recommendation
References

INTRODUCTION

Need for the study


To minimize the traffic movement inside the main area of the
NIT campus as well as to provide better connectivity to the
villagers, a proposal of connection of its whole campus by a
Ringroadisgoingon.
Decreasing budgetary funds and the need to provide a safe,
efficient, and cost effective roadway system has lead to a
dramatic increase in the need to rehabilitate our existing
pavements.
The purpose of the project undertaken is to come up with a
designandthecorrespondingcostanalysisoftheringroad.

NIT Silchar campus and


existing Road network :

(a)

(b)

(a)Doublelaneand(b)singlelaneroadinNITcampus

Usual road network used by


the villager :

Road network will be in use after


the construction of ring road:

Study area selection

The section of road connecting Village I is constructed long back


but the road connecting Village II is still in its initial stage.
This part of the existing earthen road is considered for the study.

Contd..
ThoughallthepartoftheRingRoadisalreadyconstructedas
flexible pavements but due to immense uses of new
technologies in construction and keeping the future years in
mind,thispartoftheroadisconsideredtobedesignedunder
thefollowingtwodifferenttypesofpavements:

FlexiblePavementwithfreshconventionalmaterial
Flexible Pavement with Reclaimed Material
(ReclaimedAsphaltPavement)

Existing Condition of Ring


Road

Presently in the area of consideration, road


embankmentwasdonebyearthfilling.
But there is a huge stagnation of water body
hasoccurredinthesidesoftheroad.
As the soil compaction in not done properly,
soil erosion is taking place in this area. sand
bagsarekeptalongwiththesidesoftheroad.

OBJECTIVES AND
SCOPE

Objectives of present study


1.Todesigntheflexiblepavementwithconventionalfresh
material.
2.Todesigntheflexiblepavementwithreclaimedmaterial.

3.Costanalysisforbothabovementionedtwopavements.

Scope of present study


Totalstationsurveytoaccesstheexistingroadcondition.
Soilinvestigationforthestrengthofexistingearthenroadasit
influencethesub-gradestrength,whichisrequirefordesignthe
pavement.
Trafficsurveytoanalyzethefuturetrafficconditionovertheproposed
road.
Asreclaimedasphaltpavementsuitabilityjustifythroughlaboratory
tests(flowvalueandstabilityvalue)withlocallyavailablereclaimed
material.
Erosioncontrolmeasureswithprotectiontoewalldesignandfootpath
designalsoincorporatedwiththisstudy.

LITERATURE
REVIETW

Flexible Pavement
Flexible Pavement have low or negligible flexural strength.
It transfer the vertical or compressive stress to the lower layers by
grain to grain transfer through the points of contact in the granular
structure.
Components 1. Soil sub-grade
2. Granular sub-base
3. Base course
4. Surface course
(Surface course consists of binder course, surface course, prime coat, tack coat, seal coat.)

DesignFactors-1.Soilsub-gradestrength
2.Trafficloading
IRC: 37-2001 used for design of flexible pavement.

LiteratureSurvey
Authors
Atakhilti and
Satish (2009)

Pitman (1996)

Yoder and Witczac


(1975)
Reddy, Chandra
Sekhar and Justo
(1981)

Objectives
Mathematical models
relating axle load
distribution to the
vehicular count.
Thickness design
procedure for rigid
and flexible
pavement.

Findings
1.Average axle load distribution.
2. Economic way of determining
ALD without actually going for
axle load survey in field.
Pavement design methods use only
one value, typically the mean value
and probabilistic approach for each
design parameters.

Principles of
pavement design

Coarse grained soil serve as good


sub-grades rather than fine grained
soils and clayey soils.

Reinforced soil for


flexible pavement
over clay sub-grade

Transforming the sub base layer as


reinforced mattress helps in
spreading the loads over a larger
area and avoids the problems of
shear failure.

Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement


Existing asphalt pavement materials are commonly removed
during resurfacing, rehabilitation or reconstruction operation.
Once removed and processed, the pavement materials becomes
RAP.
RAP becomes popular since 1970s, due to high cost of crude oil
during the Arab Oil Embargo.
RAP will be collected from several sources like milling, full-depth
pavement removal, waste HMA materials generated from the
plant.

Literature Survey
Authors

Objectives

Oliver (2001)

The influence of
binder in RAP

Stephens et al.
(2001)

Determination of
binder grade to use in
RAP mix

Huang et al. (2005)

Determination of
blending percentage
between aged and
virgin binder

Findings
Recycled HMA exhibited better
fatigue and rutting performance.

Long heating times in blending


between aged and virgin binder
gives more mix strength.

Its not sufficient to determine the


percentage of aged binder that can
be removed from the RAP and that
can be available for use as effective
binder.

METHODOLOG
Y

Project Flow
Detail Survey

Soil Investigation

Earthwork Calculation

Pavement Design

Toe Protection

Cost Computation

Conclusions & Recommendations

SURVEY AND SOIL


INVESTIGATION

Field Survey
The centerline of the roadway
has been marked at an
interval of 10 meter distance
and more closely whenever
there is abrupt change in
alignment.
Five to six numbers of
readings for each cross
section of road and near
about 400 readings are taken
over the road surface.

Data Acquisition

(a)

(b)

Roadprofileaccordingtosurveydata(a)andexistingone(b)

Soil Test

To design any type of pavement over the profile, the first thing
which is required to know the existing soil condition i.e. the
strength of sub-grade soil. So CBR test is a simple penetration
test developed to evaluate the strength of road sub-grades.

The stronger the sub-grade (the higher the CBR reading) the
less thick it is necessary to design and construct the road
pavement, this gives a considerable cost saving.

Standard Proctor Test

Water Content - Density relationship


Itisfoundthatoptimummoisturecontentofsoilsampleis22.2%.

CBR Test

For Specimen 1: CBR value at 2.5 mm penetration = 4.08%,CBR value at 5 mm penetration = 4.01%
For Specimen 2: CBR value at 2.5 mm penetration = 3.89%,CBR value at 5 mm penetration = 3.7%

For Specimen 3:CBR value at 2.5 mm penetration = 4.03%,CBR value at 5 mm penetration = 3.8%
For Specimen 4:CBR value at 2.5 mm penetration = 4.01%,CBR value at 5 mm penetration = 3.97%

Earthwork Calculation
FromthecalculationsinCASS2008,itwasfoundthat:
EarthworkrequiredinCutting=4664.1Cum.
EarthworkrequiredinFilling=11596.04Cum.

Figure:Sampleofcrosssectionsatevery20meters

Earthwork calculation in CASS-2008

Traffic Calculation
F

....(1)

Where,
A= Initial traffic in the year of construction in terms of the number of commercial vehicles
per day.
N= The cumulative number of standard axles to be catered for in the design in terms of
msa.
D= Lane distribution factor (LDF is taken 0.75 for 2 lane road)
F= Vehicle damage factor (VDF is taken 3.5 as per IRC)
n= Design life in years (consider for 20 years)

(2)
Where,
P= Number of commercial vehicles as per last count (150 according to traffic survey)
x=Number of years between the last count and the year of completion of construction
r= annual growth rate of commercial vehicles (for 7.5 per cent annual growth rate, r=
0.075)

Outcomes:

So, it is found that Initial traffic in the year of construction in


terms of the number of commercial vehicles per day is 174.

The design traffic is consider in terms of cumulative number of


standard axles (in the lane carrying maximum traffic) to be
carried during the design life of the road. cumulative number of
standard axles to be catered for in the design is found as 7.2
msa.

DESIGN OF ROAD SECTION

Geometric Design

Width of roadway 7.5 m considered


Camber is provided 2% over proposed the ring road for bituminous
surface.
Design speed for ring road is adopted 50 kmph as ruling design speed
and 40 kmph as minimum design speed.
TypicalCrossSectionsofRoad

Horizontal Alignment and extra widening:

Maximumspeedlimitprovidedathorizontalcurve1=25km.perhour
Maximumspeedlimitprovidedathorizontalcurve2=30km.perhour
Totalextrawideningprovidedatsection1is1.5m.i.e.0.75moneachside
oftheroad.
Totalextrawideningprovidedatsection2is1.5m.i.e.0.75moneachside
oftheroad.
Totalextrawideningprovidedatsection3is0.9m.i.e.0.45moneachside
oftheroad.

Vertical Curves

Thelengthfortheverticalcurveisworkedoutandfoundas
102.9mforbothflexiblepavement.

Existing Level

Proposed Level

Flexible Pavement Design

Thetotaldesignthicknessforflexiblepavementisadopted
660mmwhichincludesfourdifferentcompositionsi.e,

GranularSub-base-315mm
GranularBase-250mm
DBM(DenseBituminousMacadam)-70mm
SDBC(SemiDenseBituminousMacadam)25mm

ReclaimedAsphaltPavementDesign
In this study RAP samples were collected from a deteriorated
pavement in Silchar, Assam. Fresh bitumen 60/70 grade and
aggregatessamplesconformingtoDBMgradeIIarecollected.
Threetypesofrecycledmixesarepreparedwith10%,20%and
30% of RAP materials and 90%, 80% and 70% fresh aggregates
respectively.

Physical properties of reclaimed


TEST
OBSERVED
aggregates
SLNO
TEST

AggregateImpact
Value

LIMIT

METHOD

RESULT

IS-2386(Part-4)

23%

35%(maximum)

35%(maximum)

FlakinessIndex

IS-2386(Part-1)

19%

WaterAbsorption

IS-2386(Part-1)

0.9%

2%(maximum)

Stability and Flow


value

MarshallStabilityvaluesfordifferent%ofRAPmixes

MarshallFlowvaluesfordifferent%ofRAPmixes

Footpath Design

The footpath will consist of the following layersW.B.M thickness = 200 mm


Sand bed thickness = 50 mm
Paver Blocks thickness= 60 mm
Kerb strip on one channel= 300 mm wide and 50 mm thick

FIGURE: Typical Cross-Section of Footpath

Toe Protection Design


The3placesarefromchainage
K0+0.00toK0+306.2=407m
K0+858.6toK1+55.7=190m
K1+79.9toK1+103.8=20m
3 different height of masonry
wall provided at 3 different places
like 2 m, 4 m and 6 m.

Total Quantity of masonry


required = 5645.84 cum
FIGURE: Dry Stone Masonry Wall

COST ANALYSIS
Total Cost of flexible pavement with fresh materials is =2,28,15,307.98/-
i.e.18,400/-@perm2area.
Total Cost of flexible pavement with reclaimed material is
=2,03,04,927.98/-i.e.16,375/-@perm 2area.
Total Cost of footpath =40,90,664.40/ Total cost of toe wall = 1,50,35,664.52/ The cost of flexible pavement with reclaimed material (@ per m 2 area) is
12.36% less than the cost of flexible pavement with conventional fresh
material.

CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS

Conclusions

1.Aspercostanalysisitsfoundthattheflexiblepavementwith
reclaimed material is more economical than the conventional
freshmaterial.
2. The sub-grade soil condition is not very good as the CBR
value is less. Well compacted sub-grade can give more
economicalpavementasthicknessbecomesless.
3. The stability and flow value increases as the percentages of
reclaimedmaterialincreasesintothemix.
4.Useofreclaimedmaterialinpavementisbeneficialbecauseit
reducesthefreshbinderandaggregatequantity.

Recommendations
Based on the study the following recommendations can be drawn.
1. Redesign of horizontal alignments should be done and the
radius of horizontal curve 1 & 2, shall be increased by the
authorityifpossible.
2. Reclaimed material used only the base course of flexible
pavement, if it used in surface course also then cost can be
decreasesignificantly.
3. New technologies for soil stabilization can be taken up to
increasethestrengthofthesub-grade.
4. In present study maximum 30% reclaimed materials used in
flexible pavement, usage of greater percentage of reclaimed
materialcanbemorebeneficial.

References

Atakilti.G.BezabihandSatishChandra(2009),ComperativeStudyofFlexibleandRigid
PavementsforDifferentSoilandTrafficConditions,JournaloftheIndianRoadsCongress.

Huang,B.,G.Li,D.Vukosavljevic,X.Shu,X.,andB.K.Egan,LaboratoryInvestigationof
MixingHot-MixAsphaltwithReclaimedAsphaltPavement,TransportationResearch
Record:JournaloftheTransportationResearchBoard,No.1929,Washington,D.C.,2005,
pp.37-45.

Koerner,R.M(1986),DesigningWithGeosynthetics,PrenticeHall,EaglewoodCliffs,New
Jersey.

Mitchell,M.,andWalker,R.TheEconomicofPavementTypeSelectionDepartmentof
Transportation,Pretoria,SouthAfrica,1985.

Oliver,J.W.H.,TheInfluenceoftheBinderinRAPonRecycledAsphaltProperties,
InternationalJournalofRoadMaterialsandPavementDesign,Vol.2,No.3,2001,pp.311325.

Pittman,D.W.,andOpelika,ADevelopmentofaReliability-BasedDesignProcedurefor
RigidandFlexibleAirfieldPavement.U.S.ArmyCorpsofEngineers,WashingtonD.C.1996.

PrinciplesofPavementDesign,SecondEdition.E.J.YoderandM.W.Witczak.

Stephens,J.E.,J.Mahoney,andC.Dippold,DeterminationofthePGBinderGradetoUsein
aRAPMix,ReportNo.JHR00-278,ConnecticutDepartmentofTransportation,Rocky Hill,
CT,2001
Books:

HighwayEngineering,S.K.Khanna&C.E.G.Justo.

PrinciplesOfTransportationEngineering,P.Chakroborty&A.Das .

IRC:

IRC36-1970RecommendedPracticeForTheConstructionEarth
EmbankmentsForRoadWorks.
IRC-37:2001-Guidelinesforthedesignofflexiblepavement.
IRC-73:1980-GeometricDesignStandardsForRural(Non-Urban)Highways.
IRC94-1986-SpecificationforDenseBituminousMacadam.
IS14458(part2)-1997RetainingWallsForHillAreaGuidelines.
IS2386(part1)-1963MethodsofTestForAggregatesForConcrete.
IS2386(part3)-1963MethodsofTestForAggregatesForConcrete.
IS2386(part4)-1963MethodsofTestForAggregatesForConcrete.
IRC:SP111988(Appendix-5),ASTMD2172.
TechnicalSpecificationClause300,EarthworkErosionControlandDrainage.
TechnicalSpecificationClause400,Sub-Bases,Bases(Non-Bituminous)and
Shoulders.
TechnicalSpecificationClause500,BaseandSurfaceCourse,MaterialsFor
Structure.
ScheduleofRatesForRuralRoadsForAllDivisionsUnderPWRD,ASSAM
-20142013.
DelhiScheduleofRates,2014.

THANKING YOU..