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GENERAL FEATURES

A .Component of the System


Endocrine organs:

Hypophysis
Thyroid glands
Adrenal (suprarenal glands)
Hypothalamus
Pineal Body

Island of endocrine tissue:

Islets of Langerhans

Isolated endocrine cells:

DNES

B .Origin

Ductless
Invagination of epithelial surfaces pinch out
losing contact with parent epithelium

C .Microscopic Structure
Adrenal Cortex:
Zona Fasciculata

Numerous secretory cells:


cords, clumps, hollow
Contact with abundant
capillaries

D .Secretion
Merocrine bloodstream
Product:Hormon
Peptide hormones
Steroid hormones

Others: enzymes, serum albumin

E .Neuroendocrine System
Overlapping system that control cells, tissue and
organs
Master glands: Pituitary/ hypophysis
Controlled by Hypothalamus
Hypothalamic activity: controlled by
Neural connections with other parts of the nervous

system
Negative feedback from the hormones product by
pituitarys target

THE COMPONENT PARTS OF THE PITUITARY AND


THEIR RELATION TO HYPOTHALAMUS

HYPOPHYSIS/ PITUITARY
Suspended by stalk from hypothalamus
In the sphenoid bone called sella turcica
Based on differences of embryonic origin, structure,
and function:
-Adenohypophysis (anterior)
-Neurohypophysis (posterior)

DEVELOPMENT OF THE PITUITARY

Adenohypophysis
Composed of cords glandular
epithelial cells separated by
the numerous sinusoidal
capillaries of the secondary
capillary plexus
Subdivision:
Pars distalis (pars anterior)
Pars tuberalis (superior)
Pars intermedia

Anterior Pituitary

Pars Distalis, 2 type of cells:


Chromophobes (50%)
Chromophils
Acidophils
Basophils

Pars Tuberalis
Similar with pars distalis

Pars Intermedia
Rudimentary in human
Rathkes cysts
Melanotropes

SUBDIVISIONS, BLOOD SUPPLY, AND


INNERVATION OF THE PITUITARY GLANDS

Neurohypophysis
Contains abundant axons
whose cell bodies are
located mainly in the
supraoptic and
paraventricular nuclei of
the hypothalamus

Subdivision:
Infundibulum
Infundibular stem (neural stalk)
Median eminence

Pars nervosa

COMPONENTS:
Fenestrated capillary plexus
Surrounding axon terminals in pars nervosa

Pituicytes
Highly branched glial cells whose processes surround

and support the unmyelinated axons

ADRENAL / SUPRARENAL
GLANDS
Divided by embryonic origin, structure, and
function into:
Adrenal cortex
Adrenal medulla

Adrenal Glands

Blood Supply of The Adrenal

A .Adrenal Cortex
Embryonic origin: From coelomic intermediate
mesoderm
Structure:
Zona glomerulosa
Zona fasciculata
Zona reticularis

Function:
Mineralocorticoids
Glucocorticoids
Adrenal androgens

B .Adrenal Medulla
Embryonic origin: From neural crest
Structure:
Chromaffin cells/ pheochromocytes
Ganglion cells

Function:
Epinephrine
Norepinephrine

ISLET OF LANGERHANS
They appear as rounded clusters of cells
embedded within exocrine pancreatic tissue
Contain 4 major peptide hormone-secreting
endocrine cell types:
A Cells (Alpha Cells) : glucagon
B Cells (Beta Cells) : insulin
D Cells (Delta Cells) : somatostatin
F Cells (PP Cells) : pancreatic polypeptide

Islet of Langerhans

THYROID GLAND
Arises as an outpocketing of the endoderm lining
the floor of the embryonic pharynx
Store secretory product (thyroglobulin)
extracellularly in colloid
Thyroid follicular cells:
Inactive: squamous
During stimulation: columnar

Function:
a. Synthesis and storage thyroglobulin
b. Uptake and oxidation of iodine
c. Iodination of thyroglobulin and formation of

thyroid hormone
d. Thyroid hormone secretion
e. Target and effects of thyroid hormones

Thyroid
Thyroid
Gland
Gland

Thyroid Glands

Thyroid Glands

PARATHYROID GLANDS
Chief cells
- Structure : polygonal
- Function : Parathyroid hormon

increasing of blood calcium


Oxyphyl cells
- Larger and less numerous than chief cells
- Function is not clearly

PINEAL BODY
Brain sand ( corpora arenacea)
There are 2 types of cells :
Pinealocytes : melatonin

Astroglial cells (Interstitial cells)

Pineal Gland