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THE DECLARATION OF

INDEPENDENCE
BY THOMAS JEFFERSON

COMMON CORE STANDARD

RI 5 Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author


uses in his or her argument, including whether the structure makes
points clear, convincing, and engaging.
L3a Vary syntax for effect, consulting references for guidance as needed.
Objective:
The students will be able to identify and analyze the structure of an argument.
The students will be able combine complex sentences.

Literature

Common
Core

Date Taught

Date Tested

The
Declaration of
Independence
by Thomas
Jefferson

RL 5
L3a

9/23/2014

10/2/14
Even
10/3/14 Odd

Turn in homework and take DYRT Quiz (honors


classes only)

Review Rhetorical devices

FIRST OF ALLRHETORICAL
DEVICES
Rhetorical

devices are structures or skills


within language that appeal to readers
and communicate ideas.

In

other words, rhetorical devices make


you want to listen.

MORE PARALLELISM
"I dont want to live on in my work. I want to live on in my
apartment." - Woody Allen
Veni, vidi, vici(I came, I saw, I conquered). (Julius Caesar)
We have petitioned; we have remonstrated; we have
supplicated; we have prostrated ourselves before the throne,
and have implored its interposition to arrest the tyrannical
hands of the ministry and Parliament.
"Today's students can put dope in their veins or hope in their
brains. If they can conceive it and believe it, they can achieve
it. They must know it is not their aptitude but their attitude
that will determine their altitude." - Jesse Jackson
My fellow citizens: I stand here today humbled by the task
before us, grateful for the trust you have bestowed, mindful of
the sacrifices borne by our ancestors. - Barack Obama

MORE ANTITHESIS
"Love

is an ideal thing, marriage a real thing." Goethe


"We must learn to live together as brothers or perish
together as fools." - Martin Luther King, Jr.
Money is the root of all evils: poverty is the fruit of
all goodness. (source unknown)
It was the best of times, it was the worst of times
-Tale of Two Citiesby Charles Dickens
To err is human; to forgive divine. -An Essay on
Criticismby Alexander Pope

WHAT DO YOU HAVE TO DO TODAY?

Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an


author uses in his or her argument, including whether the
structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging.

In other words:

Does

the layout of the speech make sense?


Does it work?
Why or why not?
Does the order of the speech make it easy
to understand?
Why or why not?

WHAT DO YOU NEED TO BE ABLE


TO DO?

Objective: You will be able to identify and analyze


the structure of an argument which include these
things:

Argument
Claim
Support
Bridge
Counterargument
Rebuttal

ARGUMENT

An argument expresses an opinion on an issue


and supports it with reasons and evidence. An
argument contains these three important parts:

claim:the writers position on an issue or problem


support:evidence gathered to support your claim
bridge: explanation of why or how the evidence or data
supports the claim, the underlying assumption that
connects your evidence to your claim. (The so what?)

Counterarguments or counterclaim:A claim


that negates or disagrees with the thesis/claim
rebuttal: Evidence that negates or disagrees
with the counterclaim.

IMPORTANT!

When planning an argument, you need to know


what the counterargument might be so that you
can make sure that you disprove it with your
reasons and evidence.

ARGUMENT EXAMPLE
CAN YOU IDENTIFY EACH OF THE FIVE
COMPONENTS OF AN ARGUMENT?
Hybrid cars are an effective strategy to fight pollution.
Compared to all other activities, a typical citizen pollutes
the air most by driving his car. Because cars are the largest
source of private air pollution, switching to hybrid cars
should have an impact on fighting pollution. Some say that
instead of focusing on cars, which still encourages a culture
of driving even if it cuts down on pollution, the nation
should focus on building and encouraging use of mass
transit systems. While mass transit is an environmentally
sound idea that should be encouraged, it is not feasible in
many rural and suburban areas, or for people who must
commute to work; thus hybrid cars are a better solution for
much of the nations population.

ARGUMENT: EXAMPLE

Claim: Hybrid cars are an effective strategy to fight pollution.


Support: Driving a private car is a typical citizens most air
polluting activity.
Bridge: Because cars are the largest source of private, as
opposed to industry produced, air pollution switching to
hybrid cars should have an impact on fighting pollution.
Counter claim: It is said that instead of focusing on cars,
which still encourages a culture of driving even if it cuts down
on pollution, the nation should focus on building and
encouraging use of mass transit systems.
Rebuttal: While mass transit is an environmentally sound
idea that should be encouraged, it is not feasible in many rural
and suburban areas, or for people who must commute to work;
thus hybrid cars are a better solution for much of the nations
population.

ON A SHEET OF PAPER, MAKE TWO CHARTS


LIKE THIS:

Claim

Support
Bridge

Counterargument
Rebuttal

PRACTICE!
As you view two videos, fill in your charts with the
claim, support, bridge, counterargument and rebuttal
as it is presented.
Mystery Men
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XFC2o44koIA
The Lorax
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DUvHO33iaxg

CLASS ASSIGNMENT
Re-read The declaration of Independence
Identify the claim, evidence, bridge, counterclaim, and rebuttal in the text

INDEPENDENT PRACTICE:
BASEBALL GROUPS

Work as a team
Identify the major claim and the support given in
the Declaration. In your opinion, is the support
sufficient for the claim? Does it have to be?
Explain your answer.
Find and outline the following: Claim, Support,
Bridge, Counterclaim, Rebuttal
Each group member should have another chart to
be turned in for a grade