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Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

BJT AC Analysis
Chapter 5

Ch.5 Summary

BJT Transistor Modeling

A model is an equivalent circuit that represents
the AC characteristics of the transistor.
A model uses circuit elements that approximate
the behavior of the transistor.
There are two models commonly used in small
signal AC analysis of a transistor:

re model
Hybrid equivalent model
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Ch.5 Summary

The re Transistor Model

BJTs are basically current-controlled devices; therefore
the re model uses a diode and a current source to
duplicate the behavior of the transistor.
One disadvantage to this model is its sensitivity to the
DC level. This model is designed for specific circuit
conditions.

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Ch.5 Summary

Common-Base Configuration
Input impedance:
re

26 mV
Ie

Zi re

Output impedance:
Z o

Voltage gain:
AV

RL RL

re
re

Current gain:
Ai 1
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Ch.5 Summary

Common-Emitter Configuration
The diode re model
can be replaced by
the resistor re.
Ie 1 I b I b

re

26 mV
Ie

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Ch.5 Summary

Common-Emitter Configuration
Input impedance:
Z i re

Output impedance:
Zo ro

Voltage gain:
AV

RL
re

Current gain:
Ai ro
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Ch.5 Summary

Common-Collector Configuration
Input impedance:
Z i ( 1)re

Output impedance:
Zo re || RE

Voltage gain:
AV

RE
RE re

Current gain:
Ai 1
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Ch.5 Summary

The Hybrid Equivalent Model

Hybrid parameters are developed and used for modeling the
transistor. These parameters can be found on a transistors
specification sheet:
hi = input resistance
hr = reverse transfer voltage ratio (Vi/Vo) 0
hf = forward transfer current ratio (Io/Ii)
ho = output conductance

Ch.5 Summary

Simplified General h-Parameter Model

hi = input resistance
hf = forward transfer current ratio (Io/Ii)
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Ch.5 Summary

re vs. h-Parameter Model

Common-Emitter
hie re
hfe ac

Common-Base
hib re
hfb 1
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Ch.5 Summary

The Hybrid Model

The hybrid pi model is most useful for analysis
of high-frequency transistor applications.
At lower frequencies the hybrid pi model closely
approximate the re parameters, and can be
replaced by them.

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Ch.5 Summary

Common-Emitter Fixed-Bias
Configuration
The input is applied to the base
The output is taken from the
collector
High input impedance
Low output impedance
High voltage and current gain
Phase shift between input and
output is 180
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Ch.5 Summary

Common-Emitter
Fixed-Bias
Configuration
AC equivalent

re,model
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Ch.5 Summary

Common-Emitter
Fixed-Bias
Calculations
Input

Output

Zi RB||| e
Zi re

Zo RC||rO
Zo RC

Av

Voltage gain:

Av

RC
re

Current gain:

ro 10 RC

Vo
(R ||r )
C o
Vi
re

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RE 10 re

Current gain

Ai

Io
RB ro

I i (ro RC )(RB re )

Ai

ro 10 RC , RB 10 re

Ai AV

Zi
RC

ro 10 RC

Ch.5 Summary

Common-Emitter Voltage-Divider Bias

re model requires you to
determine , re, and ro.

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Ch.5 Summary
Current gain

Common-Emitter
Voltage-Divider Bias
Calculations
Input impedance

Io
R ro

I i (ro RC )(R re )
I
R
Ai o
r 10R
I i R re o C
Ai

Output impedance

R R1 || R2
Zi R || re

Zo RC || ro
Zo RC

ro 10RC

Ai

Io
ro 10RC , R10 re
Ii

Ai Av

Zi
RC

Voltage gain
Av

Vo RC || ro

Vi
re

Av

Vo
R
C
Vi
re

ro 10RC

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Ch.5 Summary

Common-Emitter Emitter-Bias
Configuration

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Ch.5 Summary

Impedance Calculations
Input impedance:
Zi RB || Zb
Zb re ( 1)RE
Zb (re RE )
Zb RE

Output impedance:
Zo RC
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Ch.5 Summary

Gain Calculations
Voltage gain:
Av

Vo
R
C
Vi
Zb

Av

Vo
RC

Vi
re RE

Av

Vo
R
C
Vi
RE

Z b (re RE )

Z b RE

Current gain:
Ai

Io
RB

I i RB Z b

Ai Av

Zi
RC

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Ch.5 Summary

Emitter-Follower Configuration

This is also known as the common-collector configuration.

The input is applied to the base and the output is taken from the emitter.
There is no phase shift between input and output.
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Ch.5 Summary

Impedance
Calculations
Input impedance:
Z i RB ||Z b
Z b re ( 1)RE
Z b (re RE )
Z b RE

Output impedance:

Zo RE||re
Zo re

RE re

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Ch.5 Summary

Gain Calculations
Voltage gain:
Av

Vo
RE

Vi RE re

Av

Vo
1
Vi

RE re , RE re RE

Current gain:
Ai

RB
RB Z b

Current gain from voltage gain:

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Ai Av

Zi
RE

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Ch.5 Summary

Common-Base Configuration
The input is applied to the emitter
The output is taken from the
collector
Low input impedance.
High output impedance
Current gain less than unity
Very high voltage gain
No phase shift between input
and output
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Ch.5 Summary

Calculations
Input impedance:
Zi RE || re

Output impedance:
Zo RC

Voltage gain:
Av

Vo RC RC

Vi
re
re

Current gain:
Ai

Io
1
Ii

Ch.5 Summary

Configuration

A variation of the common-emitter fixed-bias configuration

Input is applied to the base
Output is taken from the collector
There is a 180 phase shift between the input and output

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Ch.5 Summary

Calculations
Input impedance:
Output impedance:
Voltage gain:

Av

Zi

re
1 RC

RF

Zo RC || RF

Vo
R
C
Vi
re

Current gain:
Ai

Io
RF

Ii
RF RC

Ai

Io
R
F
Ii
RC

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Ch.5 Summary

Collector DC Feedback
Configuration
This is a variation of the commonemitter, fixed-bias configuration
The input is applied to the
base
The output is taken from
the collector
There is a 180 phase shift
between input and output
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Ch.5 Summary

Calculations
Input impedance:
Zi

re
1 RC

RF

Output impedance:
Zo RC||RF

Voltage gain:
Av

Vo
R
C
Vi
re

Current gain:

Ai

Io
RF

Ii
RF RC

Ai

Io
R
F
Ii
RC

Ch.5 Summary

Two-Port Systems Approach

With Vi set to 0 V:
ZTh Zo Ro

The voltage across

the open terminals is:
ETh AvNLVi

Ch.5 Summary

Effect of Load Impedance on Gain

This model can be applied
to any current- or voltagecontrolled amplifier.
gain of the amplifier:

V
RL
Av o
AvNL
Vi RL Ro

Zi
Ai Av
RL

Ch.5 Summary

Effect of Source Impedance on Gain

The amplitude of the
applied signal that
reaches the input of
the amplifier is:
Vi

RiVs
Ri Rs

gain:
Avs

Vo
Ri

AvNL
Vs Ri Rs

Ch.5 Summary

Voltage Gain
Effects of RL:
Av

Vo RL AvNL

Vi RL Ro

Ai Av

Ri
RL

Avs

Vo
Ri
RL

AvNL
Vs Ri Rs RL Ro

Ais Avs

Rs Ri
RL

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Ch.5 Summary

The output of one amplifier is the input to the next
amplifier
The overall voltage gain is determined by the product of
gains of the individual stages
The DC bias circuits are isolated from each other by the
coupling capacitors
The DC calculations are independent of the cascading
The AC calculations for gain and impedance are
interdependent
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Ch.5 Summary

R-C Coupled BJT Amplifiers

Voltage gain:
Av 1

RC || R1 || R2 || Re
re

Av 2

RC
re

Av Av 1Av 2

Input impedance,
first stage:
Zi R1 || R2 || Re
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Output impedance,
second stage:

Zo RC

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Ch.5 Summary

Cascode Connection
This example is a CECB
combination. This arrangement
provides high input impedance
but a low voltage gain.
The low voltage gain of the
input stage reduces the Miller
input capacitance, making this
combination suitable for highfrequency applications.

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Ch.5 Summary

Darlington Connection
The Darlington circuit provides
very high current gain, equal to the
product of the individual current
gains:

D = 1 2

The practical significance is that

the circuit provides a very high
input impedance.
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Ch.5 Summary

DC Bias of Darlington Circuits

Base current:
IB

VCC VBE
R B D RE

Emitter current:
IE (D 1)IB DIB

Emitter voltage:
VE IE RE

Base voltage:
VB VE VBE
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Ch.5 Summary

Feedback Pair
This is a two-transistor circuit that operates like a Darlington
pair, but it is not a Darlington pair.
It has similar characteristics:
High current gain
Voltage gain near unity
Low output impedance
High input impedance
The difference is that a Darlington uses a pair of like
transistors, whereas the feedback-pair configuration uses
complementary transistors.
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Ch.5 Summary

Current Mirror Circuits

Current mirror
circuits provide
constant current in
integrated circuits.

Ch.5 Summary

Current Source Circuits

Constant-current sources can be built using FETs, BJTs, and
combinations of these devices.

I IE

VZ VBE
RE

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IE IC
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Ch.5 Summary

Current Source Circuits

VGS = 0V
ID = IDSS = 10 mA

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Ch.5 Summary

Fixed-Bias
Input impedance:
Zi RB || hie

Output impedance:
Zo RC || 1/ hoe

Voltage gain:
Av

Vo
h R || 1/ ho e
fe C
Vi
hie

Current gain:

Ai

Io
hfe
Ii

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Ch.5 Summary

Voltage-Divider Configuration
Input impedance:
Z i R || hie

Output impedance:
Zo RC

Voltage gain:
gain
Av

Current gain:

Ai

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hfe RC || 1/hoe
hie
hfe R
R hie
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Ch.5 Summary

Emitter-Follower Configuration
Input impedance:
Zb hfe RE
Zi Ro || Zb

Z b h fe R E
Z i R o || Z b

Output impedance:
Zo RE ||

hie
hfe

Voltage gain:
Av

Vo
RE

Vi RE hie / hfe

Ai

Current gain:

hfe RB
RB Z b

Ai Av

Zi
RE

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Ch.5 Summary

Common-Base Configuration
Input impedance:
Zi RE || hib

Output impedance:
Zo RC

Voltage gain:
Av

Vo
h R
fb C
Vi
hib

Current gain:
Ai

Io
hfb 1
Ii

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Ch.5 Summary

Troubleshooting
Check the DC bias voltages
If not correct, check power supply, resistors,
transistor. Also check the coupling capacitor
between amplifier stages.
Check the AC voltages
If not correct check transistor, capacitors and