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Curriculum Development:

Processes and Models

Ma. Ronavie D. Mantes

Teacher I

Curriculum Development Process

It is dynamic process

It change for better means alternation, modification or improvement existing condition.

To produce positive changes development should be purposeful, planned and progressive.

It involve the following phases;

Four Phases of Curriculu m
Four
Phases of
Curriculu
m
Curriculum Planning Curriculum Designing Curriculum Implementing Curriculum Evaluating
Curriculum Planning
Curriculum Designing
Curriculum
Implementing
Curriculum Evaluating

1. Curriculum Planning

  • a. Consider the school vision, mission, and goals.

  • b. Includes the philosophy or strong education belief of the school.

  • c. Desired learning outcome.

2. Curriculum Designing

  • a. Is the way curriculum is conceptualized to include the selection and organization of content.

  • b. It will also include the resources to be utilized and the statement of the intended learning outcome.

2. Curriculum Designing a. Is the way curriculum is conceptualized to include the selection and organization

3. Curriculum Implementing

a. The teacher who is the facilitator of learning, leads in putting into action the plan based on curriculum design.

b. It involves the activities that transpire in every teacher’s classroom where learning becomes an active process.

3. Curriculum Implementing a. The teacher who is the facilitator of learning, leads in putting into

Curriculum Development Process Models

Ralph Tyler • (1902–1994) was an American educator who worked in the field of assessment and

Ralph Tyler

(1902–1994) was an American educator who worked in the field of assessment and evaluation.

“Father of Evaluation” Objective Centered

Ralph Tyler

The curriculum development model emphasizes the planning phase.

Ralph Tyler • The curriculum development model emphasizes the planning phase.

Curriculum Process

The development of a curriculum involves the developer in decisions about the nature and appropriateness of the substantive elements, eg the:

outcomes content method assessment strategies

These decisions are made in relation to the context in which the curriculum will operate.

Tylers Rationale

What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? (Defining appropriate learning objectives.)

What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purpose?(Introducing useful learning experiences.)

How can theses educational experiences be effectively organized?(Organizing experiences to maximize their effect.)

How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained or not?(Evaluating the process and revising the areas that were not effective.)

Tyler’s model shows that in curriculum development, the following considerations should be made.

1. Purpose - To provide a structure for examining the elements that go to make up curriculum planning, and how these elements interrelate.

2. Educational Experience related to the purpose

3. Organization of the experiences 4. Evaluation of experiences.

Hilda Taba • Hilda Taba (7 December 1902 – 6 July 1967) was an architect, a

Hilda Taba

Hilda Taba (7 December 1902 – 6 July 1967) was an architect, a curriculum theorist, a curriculum reformer, and a teacher educator.

She developed Ralph Tyler evaluation

She use the GRASS ROOT APPROACH

The Saylor and Alexander Model

Galen Saylor and William Alexander (1974) viewed curriculum development as consisting of four steps. According to them, curriculum is “a plan for providing sets of learning opportunities to achieve broad educational goals and related specific objectives for an identifiable population served by a single school centre”

The Saylor and Alexander Model

Goals, Objectives and Domains: The model indicates that curriculum planners begin by specifying the major educational goals and specific objectives they wish to accomplish. Each major goal represents a curriculum domain and they advocate 4 major goals or domains: personal development, human relations, continued learning skills and specialization. The goals, objectives and domains are selected after careful consideration of several external variables such as findings from educational research, accreditation standards, views of community groups and others.

The Saylor and Alexander Model

Curriculum Designing: Once the goals, objectives and domains have been established, planners move into the process of designing the curriculum. Here decision is made on the appropriate learning opportunities for each domain and how and when these opportunities will be provided. Will the curriculum be designed along the lines of academic disciplines, or according to student needs and interests or along themes? These are some of the questions that need to be answered at this stage of the development process.

The Saylor and Alexander Model

Curriculum Implementation: After the designs have been created the next step is implementation of the designs by teachers. Based on the design of the curriculum plan teachers would specify instructional objectives and then select relevant teaching methods and strategies to achieve the desired learning outcomes among students in the classroom

The Saylor and Alexander Model

Evaluation: Finally, curriculum planner and teachers engage in evaluation. The model proposed that evaluation should be comprehensive using a variety of evaluation techniques. Evaluation should involve the total educational programme of the school and the curriculum plan, the effectiveness of instruction and the achievement of students. Through the evaluation process, curriculum planner and developers can determine whether or nor the goals of the school and the objectives of instruction have been met.