Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 30

Respiratory System

Gas exchange

W
O
R
K

Why do we breathe? Think of all the


reasons why we need a respiratory
system.

T
O
G
E
T
H
E
R

Warning: terminology!
Respiration is used several different ways:
Cellular respiration is the aerobic breakdown
of glucose in the mitochondria to make ATP.
Respiratory systems are the organs in animals
that exchange gases with the environment.
Respiration is an everyday term that is
often used to mean breathing.

Respiratory system
function
Respiratory systems allow animals to
move oxygen (needed for cellular
respiration) into body tissues and
remove carbon dioxide (waste product of
cellular respiration) from cells.

Gas exchange by
Diffusion
Some animals simply
allow gases to diffuse
through their skins.
These animals have a
low metabolic rate.
Why?
All of these are aquatic
animals. Why?

Specialized structures
Structures
specialized for gas
exchange include:
gills (aquatic
animals)
spiracles
(terrestrial insects)
lungs (most
terrestrial
vertebrates)

Countercurrent
Exchange
In a concurrent
system, exchange is
inefficient.
Equilibrium is
reached at one end.
In a countercurrent
system, equilibrium
is not reached, so gas
exchange continues,
increasing efficiency.

Fish Gills
Fish increase gas
exchange efficiency
using countercurrent
exchange.
Running blood through
the system in the
opposite direction to
water keeps a diffusion
gradient throughout
the entire exchange.

Gills exchange gases in fish. What is


the site of gas exchange in
mammals?

1.
2.
3.
4.

Alveoli
Tracheids
Bronchi
Esophagus

Why are gills so widely seen in aquatic


animals but not in land animals?
One group of land animals that have
gills is the Isopods (pill bugs and sow
bugs). How can these organisms
survive on land with gills?

W
O
R
K
T
O
G
E
T
H
E
R

Human respiratory
system
Parts of the
respiratory system
include:
Trachea
Bronchi
Bronchioles
Alveoli

Moving air in and out


During inspiration
(inhalation), the
diaphragm and
intercostal muscles
contract.
During exhalation,
these muscles relax.
The diaphragm
domes upwards.

Alveoli
The alveoli are
moist, thin-walled
pockets which are
the site of gas
exchange.
A slightly oily
surfactant prevents
the alveolar walls
from collapsing and
sticking together.

Circulation and Gas


Exchange
Recall the
interconnection
between circulation
and the respiratory
system.
Gas exchange at the
lungs and in the
body cells moves
oxygen into cells
and carbon dioxide
out.

What happens when you


breathe in?
1. The rib muscles
relax.
2. The diaphragm
contracts.
3. Air leaves the
alveoli.
4. Air moves between
the chest wall and
the lung.

W
O
R
K

Premature infants sometimes die of lung


collapse and other lung problems. What
might preemies be missing? How could
this be remedied?

T
O
G
E
T
H
E
R

In the alveolus
The respiratory
surface is made up
of the alveoli and
capillary walls.
The walls of the
capillaries and the
alveoli may share
the same
membrane.

Gas exchange
Air entering the lungs
contains more oxygen
and less carbon dioxide
than the blood that
flows in the pulmonary
capillaries.
How do these
differences in
concentrations assist
gas exchange?

Oxygen transport
Hemoglobin binds
to oxygen that
diffuses into the
blood stream.
What are some
advantages to using
hemoglobin to
transport oxygen?

Carbon dioxide transport


Carbon dioxide can
dissolve in plasma,
and about 70%
forms bicarbonate
ions.
Some carbon
dioxide can bind to
hemoglobin for
transport.

At the cells
Cells use up oxygen quickly for cellular
respiration. What does this do to the
diffusion gradient? How does this help
cells take up oxygen?
Cells create carbon dioxide during
cellular respiration, so CO2 levels in the
cell are higher than in the blood coming
to them. How does this help cells get rid
of oxygen?

Diffusion of O2 from lungs to


blood is rapid because:
1. Active transport
moves oxygen.
2. Hemoglobin takes
up oxygen, keeping
plasma
concentration low.
3. Blood plasma is
oxygen-rich.

Most of the oxygen in blood


is:
1. In the white cells.
2. Bound to
hemoglobin.
3. Combined with
carbon to make
carbon dioxide.
4. Dissolved in the
plasma.

Effects of smoking
Inhaled smoke contains:
CO2, which affects the
CO2 diffusion gradient.
carcinogenic chemicals
that can trigger tumors.
toxic nicotine, which
paralyzes cilia that
normally clean the
lungs.

Gross, isnt it?

Emphysema
Besides cancer, smoking
can also lead to
emphysema. Alveoli
become dry and brittle,
and eventually rupture.
Both active and passive
smoking (secondhand smoke) can lead
to can lead to lung
problems.

All types of smoke, not just


tobacco, can cause cancers and
emphysema.

Cystic Fibrosis
Cystic fibrosis is one of
the most common
inherited disorders in
the Caucasian
population in the U.S.
CF is caused by
mutation of a single
gene, the CFTR gene,
which controls salt
balance in the lungs.

Cystic Fibrosis
A normal CFTR protein
regulates the amount of
chloride ions across the
cell membrane of lung
cells.
If the interior of the cell
is too salty, water is
drawn from lung mucus
by osmosis, causing the
mucus to become thick
and sticky.

Cystic Fibrosis
At this point there is no
cure for CF, though
there are therapies that
have extended the lives
of CF patients, including
lung transplants.
Gene therapy may one
day insert good CFTR
genes into lung cells to
make them operate
normally.

Two lies and a truth which


one is true?
1. Cigarette smoke cures
colds because it kills
bacteria in the lungs.
2. Nicotine is one of the
most potent
neurotoxins on earth.
3. Passive smoking is
less harmful than
regular smoking.

When people quit smoking, if the lungs


are not damaged they can often clean
themselves because the cilia are no
longer paralyzed. People with cystic
fibrosis have trouble with lung infections
because their lung mucus is thick and
sticky. What roles do cilia and mucus
play in lung health?

W
O
R
K
T
O
G
E
T
H
E
R