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2.2.

2 JOB ANALYSIS

JOB
Job may be defined as an assignment of
work calling for a set of duties,
responsibilities and conditions that are
different from those of other work
assignments.

VARIABLES OF A JOB
JOB ANALYSIS
JOB DESIGN
JOB DESCRIPTION

JOB
VARIABLES

JOB SPECIFICATION
JOB EVALUATION
JOB ENRICHMENT
JOB ENLARGEMENT
JOB ROTATION

Job Analysis

Job analysis is the systematic method of jobs study to identify

observable work activities,


tasks, (a piece of works)
working conditions to perform the job,
and responsibilities associated with a particular job or group of jobs .

Provides a basis for decision making.


Is used to help organizations cope with change. (deal effectively
with something difficult.)
It also depicts the job worth i.e. measurable effectiveness of the
job and contribution of job to the organization.
It concentrates on what job holders are expected to do.
Job analysis is the process whereby jobs are investigated in
sufficient detail to enable:

(a) recruitment of people


(b) assessment of the performance of people who are already working in

Importance of Job Analysis:

Job analysis helps in:

analyzing the resources


establishing the strategies to accomplish the business goals and
strategic objectives.

It forms the basis for

demand-supply analysis,
recruitments,
compensation management,
training need assessment
and performance appraisal.

Components of Job Analysis:

Job Position:

Job Description:

designation of the job and employee in the organization


level of the job in the organization.
requirements an organization looks for a particular job position
key skill requirements, the level of experience needed, level of
education required
roles and responsibilities attached with the job position.

Job Worth:

job worthiness i.e. how much the job contributes to the


organization.
Roles and responsibilities helps in determining the outcome from
the job profile.

Purpose of job analysis:

The purpose of Job Analysis is to establish and document


the 'job relatedness' of employment procedures.
Purposes of job analysis are to identify:

Job description & specification


Recruitment and Selection:
Job evaluation
Job design
Performance Appraisal and Compensation
Training
Compliance with labor law

Purpose of job analysis (cont)

1. Purpose of job analysis in Recruitment and Selection:

Job duties that should be included in advertisements of vacant


positions;
Appropriate salary level for the position: to determine what
salary should be offered to a candidate;
Minimum requirements (education and/or experience) for
screening applicants;
Selection tests/instruments (e.g., written tests; oral tests; job
simulations);
Orientation materials for applicants/new hires

Purpose of job analysis (cont)

2. Purpose of job analysis in Job evaluation

Judges relative importance of jobs in an organization


Sets fair compensation rates

3. Purpose of job analysis in Job design

Reduce personnel costs, streamline work processes,


Increase productivity and employee empowerment,
Enhance job satisfaction and provide greater scheduling
flexibility for the employee.
Simplify job with too many disparate activities
Identifies what must be performed, how it will be performed,
where it is to be performed and who will perform it.

Purpose of job analysis (cont)

4. Purpose of job analysis in Compensation and Benefits:


Skill levels
Work environment (e.g., hazards; attention; physical effort)
Responsibilities (e.g., fiscal; supervisory)
Required level of education (indirectly related to salary level)
5. Importance of job analysis in Performance Appraisal:
Goals and objectives
Performance standards
Evaluation criteria
Length of probationary periods
Duties to be evaluated

Purpose of job analysis (cont)

6. Importance of job analysis in Training and development:


Training content
Assessment tests to measure effectiveness of training
Equipment to be used in delivering the training
Methods of training (i.e., small group, computer-based, video,
classroom)
7. Job analysis increases productivity
Job analysis can use methods of time and motion study analysis
in order to know time and motion for job.
Job analysis also identify performance criteria so that it promote
worker for best performance.
8. Importance of job analysis in Compliance with labor law:

Identify requirements in compliance with labor law.


EEO (Equal Employment Opportunity) compliance

Steps in job analysis

The first step in job analysis is to identify the jobs under


review. Such as existing job descriptions, organization charts,
previous job analysis information, and other industry related
sources.
Step
1: Identify Job and Review Existing Documents
In this phase, those who will be involved in conducting the job
analysis are determined and the methods that will be used are
specified.

second step is to explain the process to managers and


Step The
2: Explain
the Process to Managers and Employees

affected employees.
Items to be covered often include: the purpose of the job
analysis; the steps involved, the time schedule; how
managers and employees will participate; who is doing
the analysis; and whom to contact when questions arise.

Step 3: Conduct the Job Analysis.

The next step is the collection of information for job


analysis using different methods such as observation,
questionnaire, interview etc.

Step 4: Prepare Job Descriptions and Specifications

On the basis of the collected job analysis


information, descriptions and specifications are
drafted for each job under review.
The drafts are then sent to appropriate managers and
employees for their review/decision.

jobanddescriptions
and specifications
are
Step 5:Once
Maintain
Update Job Descriptions
and Specifications

completed and reviewed with all appropriate


individuals, a system must be developed for keeping
them current (updated).

Otherwise, the entire process, beginning with a job


analysis, may have to be repeated.

Sources of Information for Job Analysis

Information on a job may be obtained from three


principal sources :
(a) From the employees who actually perform a job;
(b) From other employees such as supervisors and
foremen
(c) From outside observers specially appointed to
watch employees performing a job.

How to Collect Information for


job analysis

Information about jobs can be gathered in several


ways:

Observation
Interviewing
Questionnaires
Performance evaluation
Diaries
Combination of these methods frequently are used,
depending on the situation and the organization.

OBSERVATION
In observation, a manager, job analyst, or
observes the individual performing the job and
takes notes to describe the tasks and duties
performed.
The materials and equipment used, the working
conditions and probable hazards, and an
understanding of what the work involves.

INTERVIEWING

The interview method of gathering information requires that a


manager, or HR specialist, visit each job site and talk with the
employees performing each job.
A structured interview form is used most often to record the
information .
Both the employee and the employee's supervisor must be
interviewed to obtain a complete understanding of the job.
For certain difficult to define jobs, group interviews may be used.
The interview method may be time consuming and expensive,
especially if the interviewer talks with two or three employees
doing the same job.

QUESTIONNAIRE

The questionnaire is a widely used method of gathering data


on jobs.

A survey instrument is developed and given to employees and


managers to complete.

PANEL OF EXPETS

Expensive and time consuming

Panel consist senior and immediate supervisors.

Interview with group

Benefit: clarification of expected job duties among the


worker and supervisors who are in jury.

EMPLOYES Log or DIARY

Worker periodically summarize their task and activities in the


log.

If entries are made over the entire job cycle, the diary can be
quite accurate.

COMBINATION

Since each method is faulty analyst often rely on combination.

Two or more techniques can be used.

Application of job analysis information


(Out come of job analysis)
Job
Descriptions

Job
Design

Job
Analysis
Information

Job
Specifications

Job
Performance
Standards

Job Description

A job description is a written statement of the duties,


responsibilities, required qualifications and reporting
relationships of a particular job.

The job description is based on information obtained through


job analysis.

Job description acts as an important resource for:


Describing the job to potential candidates
Guiding new hired employees in what they are specifically
expected to do
Providing a point of comparison in appraising whether
the actual duties align with the stated duties.

Job Descriptions consists of:

Job Description

Job Title

Job Identification

1. Title.
2. Statement.
3. Essential Functions.
1. XXX
2. XXX
3. XXX
4. XXX

Job summary

4. Specifications.
1. XXX
2. XXX
3. XXX
4. XXX

Responsibilities and
duties
Working condition

Job Description (Cont)


Job Title

Identifies and designates the job properly.


It specifies title of job like, Project manager, Site engineer etc.
Job Identification
Distinguishes job from all other jobs
Contain several type of information.
The date at which description written, the name of a person
who wrote it and name of a person who approved it.
The immediate supervisor title is some times also shown in
identification section.

Job Description (Cont)


Job summary
Describes general nature of job, listing only major function and
activities.
For example, Project manager plans, organize , direct and coordinates
the over all activities of the project.
Responsibilities and duties
List of major responsibilities and duties.
All major duties should be separately and described in few sentences.
Example. Establishes goals, develop plans and programs, communicates
with headquarter etc.
Working conditions usually give us information about the environment
in which a job holder must work.

Example of Job Description


JOB TITLE:_____
REPORTS TO:___
SUPERVISES:___
AS ON DATE :_________

OCCUPATIONAL CODE: ________


JOB NO. : ___________________
GRADE LEVEL: _______________

FUNCTIONS:
__________________________________________________________________________
____________________________
DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES:
__________________________________________________________________________
____________________________
JOB CHARACTERISTICS:
__________________________________________________________________________
____________________________

SAMPLE JOB DESCRIPTION


Position Title: D/General Manager
Incumbent:
Mr. X
Effective Date:
30 December 2011
Reports to:
General Manager, Head quarter
Approved by: Mr. Y

Job Code:
Level: Z

1224-11

Position Statement:
The D/ General Manager is accountable for supervising the planning,
administration and review of the acquisition, development the
organization and managing all the activities of project under the
firm in all locations.

Job specification

Job specifications specify the minimum acceptable


qualifications required by the individual to perform the task
efficiently.

Based on the information obtained from the job analysis


procedures, job specification identifies the qualifications,
appropriate skills, knowledge, and abilities and experienced
required to perform the job.

Job specification is an important tool in the selection process


as it keeps the attention of the selector on the necessary
qualifications required for that job.

Example of Job Specification


JOB TITLE: __________________________
EDUCATION:_________________________
PHYSICAL HEALTH:
__________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________
MENTAL ABILITIES: _______________________________________________
SPECIAL ABILITIES: _______________________________________________
PREVIOUS WORK EXPERIENCE:
__________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________
SPECIAL KNOWLEDGE & SKILLS:_____________________________________
OTHER : ________________________________________________________

EXAMPLEOF JOB SPECIFICATION


Job Specification (Example):

Relevant bachelor degree or higher


qualification

At least 5 years managerial experience, in


IT environment

Demonstrated leadership and team skills

Ability to motivate team members

Good communication skills

Willingness to learn new skills

Job Performance Standard

These standard serve two function:


First, they become target for employees
effort, the challenge or pride in meeting
objectives may motivate employees.
once standard are meet employee get sense of
accomplishment and achievement.
with out standard employee performance may
suffer.

Second,

Standard are criteria against which job success


are measured.
When measured performance stray from the
job standard, HR expert or line managers
intervene and take corrective action.

Job Design

Job design is the process of deciding on the contents


of a job in terms of its duties and responsibilities, on
the methods to be used in carrying out the job, in
terms of techniques, systems and procedures and on
the relationships that should exist between the
jobholder and his superiors, subordinates and
colleagues.
Job design is an attempt to create a match between
job requirements and human attributes.

Job Design (contd)

Its main objective is to integrate the needs of the


individual and the requirements of the organization.
Needs of employees include job satisfaction in terms
of interest, challenge and achievement.
Organizational requirements refer to high
productivity, technical efficiency and quality of
work.

Thank you!!