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The Textile

Industry

Objectives
To understand the textile industry
as the primary material source for
the apparel, interior furnishings,
and industrial products industries
To know the various segments of the
textile industry
To be able to follow the channels of
distribution of textile products
To be aware of the careers requiring
a professional knowledge of textiles

General Fields of
Textile Products
Three Large Groupings
Apparel
Textiles used in clothing

Interior Furnishings
Textiles used in furniture, bath,
kitchen and bed

Industrial
Textiles used in luggage, flags, boat
sails, gauze, bandages, dust filters,
and so on

Major Textile
Production Segments
Fibers
Yarns
Fabrics
Dyeing and Printing
Finishing
Textile Put-Up

Fibers
The smallest part of the fabric
Fine, hair-like substances,
categorized as either natural
or manufactured
Cotton and wool are natural
fibers
Acrylic, nylon and polyester
are manufactured fibers

Yarns
Continuous thread-like
strands composed of fibers
that have been twisted
together
There are various types of
yarn, from flat and dull to
slubby and lustrous

Fabrics
Made from yarns and are either
woven or knitted
Springs Industries and
Milliken & Company are two of
the largest U.S. mills
The range of fabric types and
weights is tremendous,
fulfilling a variety of
consumer demands

Dyeing and Printing


Color is usually applied to the
woven or knitted fabric by either
dyeing or printing
Dyeing is the process for imparting
a solid color to textiles
Printing is the process of
imparting designs to textiles
The purpose is to make the fabric
more appealing

Finishing
Most fabrics need additional
treatments called finishes
before they can be used
For example, special
chemicals are used to make a
fabric water-repellent and
suitable for a raincoat

Textile Put-Up
Put-up is the term used to
indicate the way fabric is
packaged when it is sold
Most fabrics sold to garment
and other manufacturers are
in a rolled put-up, where the
fabric is wound around a
cardboard tube

Primary Sources of
Fabric
Mills
A company that owns textile machinery and
makes fabric

Converters
An individual or organization that buys
greige goods (that is, unfinished fabric)

Importers
Direct Importer buys fabric or
manufactured textile products
Import Mill is a foreign company that
owns machinery and makes the fabric and
then exports it to the US

Secondary Sources of
Fabric
Jobbers
Buys from mills, converters, and
garment manufacturers

Retail Stores
Home sewers purchase fabrics sold
in retail stores

Overseas Agents
A person or company that represents
an exporter or importer in the
countries overseas where it
conducts business

Buying and Selling


Fabric

Fabrics are purchased either


according to written specifications
or from a sample
If it is according to specifications
it must be exact.
Specifications: yarns per inch,
width, weight, thickness, breaking
strength and degree of colorfastness
If fabric is purchased from a sample,
the seller is required to deliver a
fabric almost identical to the sample

Buying and Selling


Fabric
Fabric is sold either as
greige or as finished fabric
Frequently fashion designers
or other end-product
designers work closely with
textile mill designers to
create specific fabrics to
meet their needs

Private Label
Very large quantities of textiles are
sold directly to department stores,
mail order houses, or discount chains
for manufacture by the retailer or a
contractor into private label clothing
A private label is a retail brand in
which apparel or other sewn products
are manufactured specifically for a
retailer and sold exclusively by that
retailer

Market and Production


Planning
Each segment of the textile
industry must plan well ahead of
the next selling season
Unless schedules are maintained and
deadlines met by the fiber
producers, fabric mills, and other
textile companies, it may not be
possible to ship products when the
buyers are ready to buy

Seasons
The two main selling seasons for
apparel are fall and spring
Fall season starts around August
1
Spring season starts February 1
The other seasons are summer and
holiday

Environmental Problems
Air and water pollution
Disposal of waste products
Health of workers in mills
Possible water pollution from
home laundering

Recycling
Recycling must be an
integrated effort between
consumers, retailers,
manufacturers, recyclers and
the government
Recycled products include
fibers, yarns, fabric,
garments, and used chemicals

International Trade
Shows
Interstoff - (Fabric Exposition)
SEHM - The Salon International
de lHabillement Masculin (Mens and Boys Fashions)
Techtextil - (Technical
Textiles)
Heimtextil - (Home Textiles)
ITMA - International Exposition
of Textile Machinery

Domestic Trade Shows


ATME - American Textile
Machinery Exhibition
IFFE - International FashionFabric Exposition
Magic Internations (Mens
Apparel)

Textile Careers
Nearly every country in the
world is involved with textiles
Requires areas such as design,
creative talents, technology,
merchandising and management
Combines art, structured
engineering, technical styling,
marketing, and business

Textile Careers
Administrative
Assistant
Consultant
Converter
Coordinator
Education
Environmental
Protection

Forecasting
Museum Curator
Production
Public Relations
Quality Assurance
Reporter
Sales
Sourcing