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Pragmatics

Definitions and Background

PRACMATICS
Group 5
Dwi Fitri Arnaz
(1413042069)
Melita Fisilia Olani (1413042040)
Okta Rimaya
(1413042052)
Resty Rahmawanti (1413042071)

Welcome
to the
World of
Meaning!

PRAGMATICS
What is Pragmatics?
What is the purpose of studying
pragmatics?
What are the advantage and
disadvantage of studying language via
pragmatics?

Definition of Pragmatics

The study of 'intended speaker meaning'


The study of contexual meaning
The study of how more gets communicated than is
said.

E.g.
- The chiken is ready to eat
- BABY & TODDLER SALE
- Do you know where I can get some gas?
=Theres a gas station around the corner.

Advantages of Pragmatics in
language studying

Peoples intended meaning


Their assumptions
Their purposes or goals
And kind of actions

Example: Have you got any cash on you?


deep meaning Can you lend me some money, I dont
have much on me

Disadvantages
Difficult to reach to true meaning
We can not get into the mind of the other
person
Every individual has his or her own approach
of interpreting
Example: can you give me a hand?

The Domain of Pragmatics

1.
2.
3.
4.

Implicature
Speech Acts
Deixis
Reference

Grice Implicature
Herbert Paul Grice (b. 1913-d. 1988), said that implicature is to
mean something that goes beyond what one says in such a way
that it must be inferred from non-linguistic features of a
conversational situation together with general principles of
communication and cooperation.
Implicature is whatever is meant but not literally said. Things
that are suggested, implied, or hinted at.

Rational Rules of Converstion


The rules that people follow because
were rational creatures as opposed to
The way cooperating eachother

The Cooperative Principle


Make your contribution as is required, when it is required, by
the conversation in which you are engaged.
FOUR MAXIMES
Quality: Contribute only what you know to be true. Do not
say false things. Do not say things for which you lack evidence.
Quantity: Make your contribution as informative as is
required. Do not say more than is required.
Relation (Relevance): Make your contribution relevant.
Manner: (i) Avoid obscurity; (ii) avoid ambiguity; (iii) be
brief; (iv) be orderly.

1. Maximes of Quantity
A : Whats playing?
Make your contribution as informative as is
required ( The times of the movie)
Do not make your contribution more
informative that is required
(the times of movies accross the country)

2. Maxime of Quality
Contribute only what you know to be true.
(dont say a movie that isnt playing)
Do not say false things. Do not say things for
which you lack evidence.
(dont say a movie that i havent looked up)

3. Maxime of Relation
A : im going to Denpasar next week
My mom lives there
= you understand that im going to Denpasar
next week in order to visit my mom (Relevant)

Being cooperative participant

4. Maxime of Manner
Fantastis Beasts and Where to find Them
is playing at our local theaters.
NOT
Our movie theaters will be displaying
an advanture and fascinating by
jk rowling newest novel

Speech Acts
in linguistic, a speech act is an utterance defined in
terms of a speakers intention and the effect it has on
a listener.
The use of the term speech act covers 'actions' such
as 'requesting', 'commanding', 'questioning' and
'informing

Direct Speech Acts

You eat bread


(declarative)
Do you eat bread?
(interrogative)
Eat bread.
(Imperative)
You wear a seat belt. (declarative)
you wear a seat belt? (interrogative)

Indirect Speech Acts


Whenever there is an indirect
relationship between a structure and
function.
(Its Winter and the window is open)

Its cold in here (indirect)


I hereby request that you close the window. (Indir.)
There is a fly in my soup

Direct or Indirect?
Move out of the way!
You make a better door than a window.
Im so hungry
Questions or requests?
Could you pass the salt?
Would you open this?

Deictic Word
I like Studying
Linguistics

I do,
too

Deicis / Dexies
A deictic expression (or deixis) is a word or phrase (such as
this, that, these, those, now, then) that points to the time,
place, or situation in which a speaker is speaking.
The term deixis applies to the use of expressions in which the
meaning can be traced directly to features of the act of
utterance-when and where it takes place, and who is involved
as speaker and as addressee.

Some Types in Deixis


1. Personal deixis:
First person (Speaker: I, we, they)
Second person (hearer: you, he, she, it)
Eg :

I am going to the movies.


Wouldyoulike to have dinner?
Shewants to get the best score in the final exam.

2. Spatial deixis
Determiners: this/that
Nouns specifying motion toward/away from speaker:
Can you bring that tomorrow?
Adverbs (intransitive prepositions): here/there
Here she comes
There she goes

Temporal Deixis
Adverbs: now/then; this year/that year; at this/that
point; yesterday; two days ago; last week.
Tense: present tense (proximal) : Now
and both past and future tense (distal) : Tomorrow,
Then.

Eg:

Tomorrowis Sunday
"I saw himlast week"

Examples
I want this dish, this dish, and this dish.
How do we interpretate ?
To interpret this utterance, the waiter must have information
about who I refers to, about the time at which the utterance is
produced, and about what the three noun phrases this dish refer
to

CONCLUSION
Deixis is the single most obvious way in which the relationship
between language and context is reflected in the structures of
languages themselves. It concerns on the interpretation of
utterances depends on the analysis of that context of utterance.
Some aspects of deixis make a difference to truth conditions;
this shift will coincide with the decision to restrict semantics to
the truth-conditional aspects of meaning.