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Organizing your Speech

Units 12, 13, & 14

Champions know there are no


shortcuts to the top. They climb the
mountain one step at a time. They
have no use for helicopters!
-JUDI ADLER
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WHY READ THESE


UNITS?
Because they will enable you to organize
your speech by helping you to:
Organize your ideas so that your audience can

follow, understand, and remember what you say


Select an organizing pattern that best fits the
topic, purpose, thesis, and audience
Construct effective introductions, conclusions,
and transitions
Develop outlines that will help in rehearsing and
delivering your speech
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The Benefits of Organization


Organizing the speech helps:
Guide the speech preparation process
The audience to understand the speech
The audience to remember the speech
Establish speaker credibility

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Develop Your Main Points


1. Select the Main Points
2. Limit the Number of Main Points
2-4

main points are sufficient


3. Focus on the Audience
4. Word the Main Points
Develop the main points so they are
separate and discrete
Phrase the main points in parallel style

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Organize Your Main Points


Topical Pattern
Use when the topic conveniently divides
itself into clear subdivisions approximately
equal in importance
Temporal Pattern
Use for speeches organized chronologically
into two, three, or four major parts
Spatial Pattern
Use when describing objects or places

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Organize Your Main Points


cont
ProblemSolution Pattern
Useful in persuasive speeches to convince
the audience that a problem exists and that
your solution would solve or lessen the
problem
CauseEffect Pattern
Useful in speeches to show the audience
the causal connection existing between
two events or elements

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The Motivated Sequence


Overview
Developed by Alan Monroe
Step 1: Gain Attention
Step 2: Establish the Need
Step 3: Satisfy the Need
Step 4: Visualize the Need
Satisfied
Step 5: Ask for Action

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Step 1: Gain Attention


Get the audience to focus on you and

your message
Demonstrate enthusiasm
Involve the audience directly

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Step 2: Establish the Need


State the problem or need
Lack

of information
Change an attitude or behavior
Show why this is really a problem
Audience must understand that the
problem affects them directly
Show how this need affects those
values that motivate the audiences
behavior
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Step 3: Satisfy the Need


Show how your plan will satisfy the

audiences need or solve its problem


Show why your solution will work

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Step 4: Visualize the Need


Satisfied
Demonstrate the benefits listeners will

receive if your ideas are put into operation


Demonstrate the negative effects that will
occur if your plan is not put into operation
Demonstrate the combined positive and
negative effects of accepting or rejecting
your ideas

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Step 5: Ask for Action


Tell the audience exactly what to do
Remind listeners of the connections

established throughout the speech


Stress specific advantages

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Quick
Quiz

How many main points are


sufficient for most classroom
speeches?

A. 1-3
B. 2-4
C. 3-5
D. 4-6
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Cultural Considerations
High-context cultures
Much of the information in communication
is in the context or in the person rather than
in the actual spoken message.
Examples: Arab, Japanese, Latin American
Low-context cultures
Most information is explicitly stated in the
verbal message.
Examples: German, Swedish, North
American

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The Introduction,
Conclusion, and Transitions

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The Introduction
The introduction gives listeners their first
impression of the speaker and the speech, and sets
the tone for the rest of the speech.
Functions of the introduction:
Gain audience attention
Establish a speakeraudiencetopic relationship
Orient the audience by previewing the main

points

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Faults in Introductions
Dont apologize
Dont promise something you wont

deliver
Dont use gimmicks that gain
attention but are irrelevant to the
speech
Dont introduce your speech with
ineffective statements
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The Conclusion
The conclusion is often the part of the

speech that the audience remembers most


clearly.
Functions of the conclusion
Summarize the speech
Motivate the audience
Provide closure
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Faults in Conclusions
Dont introduce new material
Dont dilute your position
Dont drag out the conclusion

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Transitions
Transitions are words, phrases, or sentences

that help listeners follow the development of


your thoughts and argument and get an idea
of where you are in your speech.
Functions of transitions
To connect presentation parts
Announce a major proposition
Signal conclusion
Indicate contrast or exception
Precursor to next point
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Outlining the Speech


The outline
Is a blueprint for the speech
Should be started when you begin

constructing the speech


Helps you see at a glance all the elements
of organization considered
Enables you to spot weaknesses in the
speech

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Constructing the Outline


Construct a preparation outline using
the following guidelines:
1. Start with a title or question.
2. Outline the introduction, body,
and conclusion as separate units
3. Insert transitions
4. Append a list of references
5. Use a consistent set of symbols
6. Use complete declarative
sentences or phrases
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Other Outline Formats


Preparation Outlines
The main outline that is constructed
Template Outlines
A pre-established format into which
specific information is inserted
Delivery Outlines
Consisting of key words or phrases that
will assist the speaker in delivering the
speech
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Discussion Questions
Many students appear to give little thought to

developing clear outlines for their speeches. Why do


you think this is? What might be done to help them
see the importance of developing a good, strong
outline?
Saida and Soufiane have decided to present a
persuasive speech on the need for people to recycle.
How might they develop their speech by using the
motivated sequence pattern?
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