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Good Hygiene practices (GHP)

&
Good Manufacturing Practices
(GMP) in slaughterhouse
DR. Mutasim Ibrahim

GHP: all practices regarding the


conditions and measures necessary to
ensure the safety and suitability of food at
all stages of the food chain
GMP: describe the requirements for
hygienic design and construction of
slaughter premises and equipment.
In short this means hygienic rules
translated to instructions and procedures
for employees and machinery.

SSOPs: describes how GHP is to


be achieved
i.e. minimizing microbial,
chemical and physical
contamination.

Lairages
The principal function of the lairage
is to provide a reservoir of animals
for the slaughter line. For the
purposes of food safety, and on
animal welfare grounds, facilities
must be available for the isolation
and removal of any animals showing
signs of illness.
Pressurized water is preferred to
wash animals prior slaughter

Animals must be adequately rested


before slaughter for 12hrs.
Food should be withheld 12hrs before
slaughter.
Anti-mortem inspection must be
diligently carried out to detect sick
animals. Many diseases is often more
easy to detect during Am rather than
pm

Appropriate protective clothing should be worn


and replaced each day or when heavily soiled
Hands and arms should be washed and knives
and equipments regularly sterilized
Workers should not move from dirty to clean
areas.
Slaughtering should be done in tables or in
hanging rail (in case of poultry) to reduce
contamination by regurgitation

GHP for Slaughtering


The slaughtering knife should be
cleaned and sterilized between each
carcass at 82C.
The head should be removed and
after skinning washed separately
from the carcass.
Tonsils should be removed cleanly as
they are heavily contaminated with
pathogenic bacteria.

The slaughter and dressing operation


provides many opportunities for
contamination of the carcass with
pathogenic bacteria which are not
detectable at post-mortem inspection.
Good manufacturing practices (GMP) can
be focused on limiting this spread and,
likewise, the establishment of control
points at specific stages during slaughter
and dressing.

GHP for skinning


Prevent contact or dirt flicking from feed
parts of the hide and meat surface.
Prevent contamination of the carcass
with dirty hooks, knives and protective
clothes.
After the initial cut through the skin,
sterilize the knife in water at 82c and
then make all other cuts from the inside
out.

Do not create aerosols during


mechanical hide-pulling.
No hair or skin pieces should be
left on the skinned carcass.
No excess blood should appear
on the skin of the carcass.

All staff must be adequately trained


in good hygienic practice (GHP) and
be provided with proper working
instructions.
During dressing the oesophagus of
cattle and sheep should be sealed
to prevent leakage of ruminal
contents.

In sheep this can be achieved by tying


the
oesophagus in a knot while in cattle a
technique termed rodding may be used
to free the oesophagus from the trachea
and diaphragm and to position a rubber
ring or plastic clip on the
oesophagus close to the diaphragm.

Similarly, it is
recommended that a plastic bag is used
to seal off the rectum after loosening;
this is sometimes referred to as bagging.
Removal of hides or fleece should be
carried out so that contact between the
outside of the skin and the carcass is
avoided while hands and equipment that
touch the outside of the skin should not
come into contact with the underlying
carcass meat.

GHP for evisceration


Do not puncture the viscera (alimentary
tract), uterus, urinary bladder and gall
bladder during separation cuts.
Prevent contact of viscera with floors,
walls or stands.
Regularly wash hands/aprons and
sterilize knives, specially after any
possible contamination has occurred.
Identify/correlate viscera with the
related carcasses

Careless evisceration must be avoided


to prevent contamination of the
carcass with gut contents.
During post-mortem meat inspection,
palpation and incision of lymph nodes,
infected tissues or tissues with
abnormalities can give rise to cross
contamination. Incision should be
avoided where possible, and palpation
of organs should be minimal.

presence of veterinary certificates,


availability of adequate health status
information about animals source
and history, application of animal
identification &traceability system )
will help to minimize invasive
inspection methods.

Carcass splitting saws should be sterilized


between each carcass.
Proper cleaning and sanitation of the slaughter
floor and equipment should occur daily and
frequently during the day to reduce
contamination from these sources. and it
should be done under skillful and firm
supervision.
Sanitary Standard operation procedures
(SSOPs) for cleaning and sanitation of all parts
of the plant should be in-place and wellimplemented .

Premises should be designed and


maintained in an hygienic state.
Knives must be frequently sterilized
and cleaned particularly between
carcasses and between skin opening
and further flaying.
Scabbards using should discouraged,
much hygienic alternative should be
seeked.

Carcasses should not be washed to


remove accidental contamination but
must be trimmed instead.
The surface temp. of carcasses must
be reduced to below 7C in as short
time as possible to limit the growth of
microorganisms and may accidentally
contaminate the carcass.

GHP for refrigeration


Move the carcasses
into the cooler as
soon as possible to
speed up the surface
drying and hinder
bacterial growth.
Keep carcasses on
rails and without
touching floors/walls
and other carcasses
to prevent crosscontamination.

Do not overload the cooler.


Adjust the cooling rgime optimally in
terms of air temp., speed and relative
humidity, to achieve rapid refrigeration to
a deep muscle temp. of 6-7C with no
condensation or weight loss.
Do not open the cooler doors either
unnecessary or frequently to avoid temp.
fluctuations.
It is of extreme necessity that adequate
lightening should be maintained inside
the cooling rooms

Keeping carcasses spaced to


allow surface drying limits
growth of microorganisms.

Rodent and pest control


Adequate rodent and pest
control must be occur to
prevent salmonella
contamination of meat and
handling equipment from
these sources.

Waste disposal
There shall be facilities provided for
the storage of all waste types prior to
its removal.
This area should be properly drained
for any run-off that may occur.
It should be located away from the
production area.
Containers for waste material shall
be clearly identified, leak proof and
fitted with covers.

Training
Basic training in hygiene :
1.Nature and how it affect.
2.Hygiene practices.
3.Regulations and procedures of meat plant.
4.Health requirements of personnel.
These can be fully explained in booklet given
to new employees in which nature of,
viruses, bacteria, yeasts and moulds.
along with occupational hazards.

On the job training: can deal with

1.
2.
3.
4.

Use of equipments and their sterilization.


Protective clothing.
Accedents,use of dressing and first-aid.
Visit to the lab will be of great value.

On-going training programs: are


concerned with furthering
awareness about hygiene
practices by way of posters,
lectures, personal aproach,etc.

Identification &
Traceability
??