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MONITORING AND

EVALUATION TOOLS

Monitoring and Evaluation

The National Democratic Institute

INTRODUCTIONS/
GROUND RULES
Introductions
Ground Rules
Ice Breaker Exercise

Photo: Sanja Gjenero, RGBstock.com

MONITORING AND EVALUATION


(M&E) TOOLS OBJECTIVES
To become familiar with and practice
using a range of M&E tools
To consider when and how the tools can
be employed during the project life
cycle

M&E TOOLS TOPICS

What is M&E?
Gender analysis
Project lifecycle
Data collection
Program design tools
Evaluations
Other tools

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KEY TERMS

Indicator
Input
Output
Intermediate result
Outcome
Objective

Goal
Target
Baseline
Impact
Gender
Stakeholder

M&E DEFINED
Monitoring
Continuous
Ensures project on track
Identifies problems

Evaluation
Assesses whether project is achieving
objectives
Periodic
Focuses on outcomes and impacts

GENDER AND M&E


Gendered priorities, constraints and
impact
Failure to address gender leads to
inefficient and unsustainable results
and exacerbates inequities

PROJECT LIFE CYCLE

DATA COLLECTION TOOLS


Quantitative methods
Household surveys
Public opinion polls/surveys
Qualitative methods
In-depth interviews
Focus groups
Direct observation
Document review
Participatory assessments

EXERCISE:
WHICH TOOLS? WHEN?
Multi-workshop training
program for women
political activists
Objective: Improve the
capacity of women to
run for elected office
Which data collection
tools? When?

Photo: Amy Hamelin, NDI

EXAMPLE:
WHICH TOOLS? WHEN?
Workshops
Pre-and post questionnaires
Evaluation forms

In between events
Direct observation

End of project
Focus groups
In-depth interviews
Election results

Photo: Amy Hamelin, NDI

PROGRAM DESIGN TOOLS


Gender, context and
stakeholder analysis
Problem and objective
analysis
Activity plan
Indicators
Critical assumptions
Risk analysis and
management
Resource plan
Results framework

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GENDER ANALYSIS
Can be undertaken at any stage but
most effective if included in design
Systematic way of analyzing different
roles and impacts
Asks the who questions
How this will affect women and men?

CONTEXT ANALYSIS
Institutions or vehicles that have
positive or negative impact?
Key actors or factors that help or
hinder?
Socio-cultural, political and economic
environment?

CONTEXT ANALYSIS EXAMPLE

STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS
All people who have a stake
Participants
Implementers
Decision-makers
Donors
Who are they?
What is their interest? Influence?
Power?
Relations with other stakeholders

STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS
Survey all people who have a stake
High

Low

High

Low

POWER

EXERCISE:
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS
Program to enhance the capacity of the
Liberian legislature to represent
citizens interests
Identify stakeholders
Plot them on chart
Photo: NDI

PROBLEM ANALYSIS

EXERCISE: PROBLEM TREE


Problem: Low level
of women in
elected bodies
Identify root causes
Identify effects
Link root causes to
their effects
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OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS
Links problem analysis to program
design
Provides visual map
Defines scope of program
Maps out pathway of change
Identifies what will be monitored and
evaluated
Facilitates planning and management

OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS
Core problem reframed as objective
Root causes reframed as intermediate
results

INDICATORS
Qualitative versus quantitative
SMART
Specific
Measurable
Achievable
Relevant
Time-bound
Negative effects reframed become
indicators

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CRITICAL ASSUMPTIONS
Factors outside our control
Conditions under which program logic
will hold true
Conditions likely to affect achievement
of results
Identify at each level of framework

RISK ANALYSIS AND


MANAGEMENT
Every program entails risk
Identify risks and contingency
plans/mitigation measures for each
level of framework

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RESOURCE PLAN
What resources are needed for:
Staff time and materials for setting up an
M&E system
Evaluation activities

RESULTS FRAMEWORK
Links evaluation strategy to problem
analysis
Helps identify indicators
Aids in M&E
Clarifies logic of project
Provides roadmap for planning and
management

EXAMPLE: FRAMEWORK

EXERCISE:
RESULTS FRAMEWORK

PROGRAM EVALUATION
Types of evaluations:
Baseline
Mid-term
Final
Impact
Internal versus external

EXAMPLE: ASSESSMENTS
Win with Women
Political Party Assessment Tool

PROGRAM EVALUATION
Steps
Determine evaluability
Select research questions
Identify methods for data collection
Develop and test data collection
instruments and protocols

Photo: Sanja Gjenero, RGBstock.com

EVENT EVALUATIONS
Verbal feedback
Evaluation forms
Pre- and post-workshop questionnaires

PUBLIC OPINION RESEARCH


Qualitative
Focus groups/in-depth interviews
Quantitative
Surveys/polls
Combination of both

IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWS

Key informant/one-on-one interviews


Explore thoughts on deeper level
More flexible
Avoid influence of group dynamics

Photo: NDI

FOCUS GROUPS
Why and how strongly people hold
opinions
Cant project results to wider
population
Groups formed around common
characteristics
Six to ten people and moderator
Open-ended questions

SURVEYS

Identical set of close-ended questions


Representative sample of population
Results projected to larger population
Predict future behaviors and trends

EXAMPLE: PUBLIC OPINION


RESEARCH IN UKRAINE
Nearly 50% thought women
underrepresented
More likely to vote for party with
outreach to women
Perceive women as better managers

Photo: NDI

M&E TOOLS REVIEW


Monitoring: continuous activity to
ensure project is on track
Evaluation: assesses impact
M&E must address gender
Wide range of qualitative and
quantitative data collection tools that
can be used throughout project life
cycle