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# Algebra

## Presented by: Hannah Joy Pansacala

Laws of Exponents

Sample Problem:

Sample Problem:

Properties of Logarithm

Sample Problem:

Given: = n
Find

Sample Problem:

If = x
=y
Find

General
Form :
Formula:
Sum of
roots:

Product of
roots:

Binomial Theorem
Involving

yth term:

rth term:

n Cr
nCr-1

Sample Problem:

expansion of

8064

Sample Problem:

## Find the 5th term in the expansion

of

Remainder Theorem

Sample Problem:
Find the remainder when +4 +8 is
divided by x-5 ?

Sample Problem:

## Find the remainder when (+2) is

divided by x- ?

Variation Problems
Direct Variation / Directly Proportional
y is directly proportional to x, y x:
y=kx

## Inverse Variation / Directly Proportional

y is inversely proportional to x, y 1/x:
y=k

## Joint Variation / Jointly Proportional

y is directly proportional to x and z:
y=kxz
y is directly proportional to x and inversely proportional
to z:
y=kx

Sample Problem:
Given that w varies directly as the
product of x and y and inversely as
the square of z and that w=4 when
x=2, y=6, and z=3. Find w when
x=1, y=4, and z=2.

Worded Problems
Age Problem
Alfred is four times as old as his nephew
Franco. 5 years ago, the sum of their ages is
equal to the present age of Alfred. How old is
Alfred?

Sample Problem:
The sum of the parents ages is twice the sum of
their childrens ages. Five years ago, the sum of
the parents ages is four times the sum of their
childrens ages. In fifteen years, the sum of the
parents ages will be equal to the sum of their
childrens ages. How many children were in the
family?

Mixture Problems

## How many liters of 10% salt

solution must be added to 20% salt
solution in order to obtain 10 liters
of 12% salt solution?

Sample Problem:
Ten liters of 25% salt solution and 15
liters of 35% salt solution are poured
into a drum originally containing 30
liters of 10% solution. What is the
percent concentration of salt in the
mixture?

Digit Problems

## In a two-digit number, the units

digit is 3 greater than the tens
digit. Find the number if it is 4
times as large as the sum of its
digit.

Sample Problem:
The sum of the digits of a three-place number
is 19. If the tens and units digits are
interchanged the number is diminished by 27,
and if the hundreds and tens digits are
interchanged the number is increased by 180.
What is the number?

Motion Problems

## A boat takes 2/3 as much time to

travel downstream from C to D, as
to return. If the rate of the rivers
current is 8 kph, what is the speed
of the boat in still water.

Work Problems
Case 1: Workers have different rates
Work rate Time to finish the job = 1 job done
Work rate = (1 job done) / (Time to finish the job)
Time of doing the job = (1 job done) / (Work rate)

Sample Problem:
Lex can finish a job in 6 hours
while Romel can do the same job
in 3 hours. Working together, how
many hours can they finish the job

Work Problems
Case 2: Workers have equal rates
Work load = no. of workers time to
finish the job
Work done = no. of workers time of
doing the job

Sample Problem:
Eleven men could finish the job in 15
days. Five men started the job and
four men were added at the beginning
of the sixth day. How many days will it
take them to finish the job?

PERMUTATION and
COMBINATION
Combination the order does not
matter
Permutation the order does
matter

PERMUTATION
How many ways can 5 people line up
to pay their electric bill?
How many ways can 7 people be
seated at a round table?

PERMUTATION
What is the number of permutations
of the letters in the word
ELECTRONICS?

COMBINATION
How many committees can be
formed by choosing 4 men from an
organization consisting of 15 men?

Sample Problem:
How many ways can 3 men and 4
women be seated on a bench if the
women to be together?

Sample Problem:
In how many ways can an IECEP
Chapter with 15 directors choose a
president, vice president, secretary,
treasurer and auditor, if no member
can hold more than one position?

Sample Problem:
In how many ways can you invite
one or more of your 5 friends in a
party?

PROBABILITY
Probability is a measure or estimation of how

## likely it is that something will happen or that a

statement is true. Probabilities are given a
value between 0 (0% chance or will not happen)
and 1 (100% chance or will happen).

Sample Problem:
Roll a pair of dice. What is the
probability that the sum is 11?

Sample Problem:
Determine the probability of
drawing either a king or a diamond
in a single draw from a pack of 52
playing cards.