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Fermentation Industries

Industrial Alcohol
Absolute Alcohol
Beers, Wines, and Liquors
Butyl Alcohol and Acetone
Vinegar and Acetic Acid
Citric Acid
Lactic Acid
Miscellaneous Compounds

Franzford Jaio Sacro

Kim Jasper Paller


Uses and Economics

Many fermentation processes are in direct

competition with strictly chemical synthesis.

Almost all the major antibiotics (Dextran)

Microbiological production of vitamins (Chap. 6

Antibiotics, Hormones and vitamins)

Uses and Economics

Fermentation under controlled conditions

involves chemical conversions.
Alcohol to Acetic Acid
Sucrose to Citric Acid
Dextrose to Gluconic Acid

Aldehydes to Alcohols
Sulfur to Hydrogen Sulfide

Starch to Glucose
Sucrose to Glucose and Fructose

Hexose Phospate from Hexose and Phosphoric Acid

Uses and Economics

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Herbert E.Silcox

Sylvan B. Lee

Uses and Economics

5 Basic Prerequisites of a Good Fermentation

- Silcox and Lee

1. Microorganism forms a desired end product (readily
propagated, biologically uniform) thereby giving
predictable yields.
2. Economical raw materials for the substrate (e.g., starch)
3. Acceptable yields.
4. Rapid fermentation.
5. Product is readily recovered and purified.

Uses and Economics

-Microorganism, Equipment and Fermentation

Critical Factors of Fermentation

- pH, Temperature, Aeration-agitation, Pure-culture
fermentation and Uniformity of Yields

Uses and Economics

More than 23,000 t/year of Antibiotics are

produced worldwide

Fermentation Products produced in large quantities

Organic Acids
Amino acids

Largest volume materials

Monosodium Glutamate
Citric Acid

Industrial Alcohol
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Industrial Alcohol

Absolute Alcohol
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Absolute Alcohol

Practically 100% ethyl alcohol

Made by absorbing the 4 to 5% water present in 95 to 96%

industrial alcohol using quicklime with subsequent
- expensive but produces very high quality

Ethyl alcohol & water form an azeotrope (95% by volume


Various methods are in use / have been suggested to

remove 5% of water to produce 100% alcohol.

Absolute Alcohol

(Method of Separation)

Oldest method is distillation of the

95% azeotrope using third component
which forms a minimum constantboiling mixture boiling at lower
temperature than the 95% alcohol or
the water.

Absolute Alcohol

(Method of Separation)

One of the newer proposal is to use cellulose or

cornmeal to adsorb the water.

Aluminum oxide and silicon oxide adsorbent have

also been used.

Another method is to use liquid CO2 to extract the

ethanol and then depressurizing to flash off CO2.

Other solvents, such as dibutyl phthalate, are

under investigation.

Absolute Alcohol

Interest in cutting energy demand for production

of 100% alcohol is very great because of the
proposed use of gasohol.

The energy liberated by burning 1L of absolute

alcohol is about 23MJ which is less than to the
present processes to produce it which consume
up to 42MJ/L .

The average total energy consumption for the

new processes is 11 to 12.5 MJ/L; several of the
processes claim much lower energy demands.

Beers, Wines and Liquors

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Beers, Wines and Liquors


Discovered by primitive humans and has been

prac-ticed as an art for thousand of years

A good brewer has to be an engineer, a chemist,

and a bacteriologist.
Factors (Taste, Odor, Individual Preference)
exist to force manufacturer to exert the greatest
skill and experience in producing palatable
beverages of great variety.

Alcoholic Beverages divided into 3 groups:

Malt Liquors, Fermented Wines and Distilled

Beers, Wines and Liquors

Uses and Economics

In 1981, the consumption of malt beverages was

95.8 L, wine and brandy, 8.7 L, and distilled
spirits, 11 L, all per capita (adult).

Beers, Wines and Liquors

Raw Materials

Grains and fruits supplying carbohydrates

are the basic raw materials.

Russia ferments potatoes and by

distillation obtains vodka

Similar treatment of the sap of the Maguey

in Mexico yields pulque

Worlds chief raw materials for

fermentations are the cereals, corn, barley,
and rice, and grapes.

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Beverages of low alcoholic content (2 to 7%) made

by brewing various cereals with hops, usually
added to impart a more-or-less bitter taste and to
control the fermentation that follows.

Cereals employed:
Malt Adjuncts (flaked rice, oats and corn)
Wheat (used in Germany)
Rice and Millet ( China)

Brewing sugars and syrups (corn sugar or glucose)

and yeast complete the raw materials.


Flowchart for beer manufacture may be divided

into three groups of procedures:

1. Brewing of mash through to the cooled hopped

2. Fermentation
3. Storage, finishing and packaging for market


Make beer thing


Beer making has not changed much over the

years, however, some new plants have installed
automatic wort-production using hop pellets and
using a whirlpool to separate out the hops and

Another innovation which is claimed not to

change the final product is high-density brewing
wherein the wort is produced with much less
water than usual.

A universal refrigerant-cooled tank to ferment,

age and finish beer in a single tank was also been


Beer contains about 90% water and can be

concentrated (dehydrated) to about of
its original volume.

Ice crystals (below freezing point of water)

can be separated from the beer

To reconstitute the beer, water and carbon

dioxide are added.

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Been made for several thousand years by

fermentation of the juice of the grape.

Many primitive procedures have been supplanted

by improved science and engineering to reduce
costs and to make more uniform products.

As always, the quality of the product is largely

related to grape, soil and sun resulting in a
variation in flavor, bouquet, and aroma.


Color depends largely upon the nature of the

grapes and whether the skins are pressed out
before fermentation.

Classified as natural (alcohol 7 to 14%), fortified

(alcohol 14 to 30%), sweet or dry, still or sparkling.

Fortified wines have alcohol or brandy added.

Some of the sugars remains unfermented for

sweet wines.


For the manufacture of dry red wine, red or black

grapes are necessary.

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Various fermented products,
upon distillation and aging, yield
distilled liquors.

Whiskey ( Bourbon, Rye, Scotch Whisky)




Flowchart for Whiskey and Gin

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Skill and scientific knowledge aid in the


Butyl Alcohol and

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Butyl Alcohol and Acetone


All the acetone produced was made by dry

distillation of calcium acetate from pyroligneous
acid. (Until WWI)

Wartime demand for acetone (smokeless Powder),

Weizmann developed a process utilizing the
fermen-tation of starch-containing grains to yield
acetone and butyl alcohol.

Butyl Alcohol and Acetone


Commercial Solvents Corp. was organized, built

and operated 2 plants to ferment corn using
Clostridium Acetobutylicum bacteria.

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Butyl Alcohol and Acetone


The fermentation gave 2 parts butyl alcohol to 1

part acetone.

No market for the butyl alcohol produced.

During the development of fast-drying

nitrocellulose lacquers, conditions became

New cultures feeding on molasses were

developed, which gave a more desirable solvent
ratio (3 Butyl Alcohol:1 Acetone)

Butyl Alcohol and Acetone


Acetone is coproduced with phenol by the

oxidation of cumene or dehydrogenation of
isopropyl alcohol.

Several greatly improved biological processes

have been dominated by the lower-cost synthetic
presently used.

Used as a solvent and in fabricating plastics.

Butyl Alcohol and Acetone